Thursday, March 31, 2011

Best Breast Cancer Treatment Centers

There are so many treatment centers of breast cancer all over the world.Nearly 900 hospitals are listed in Cancer. All are experienced in treating difficult cases.But the top breast cancer treatment centers are listed below these are the top treatment centers of breast cancer.


  • University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer CenterThis year University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center was rated in 6 adult and 1 pediatric specialties.The recent data show it has 22,564 admissions and performs 8,791 inpatient and 8,599 outpatient surgeries.
  • Memorial Sloan-Ketterling New YorkMemorial Sloan-Ketterling is a non profit hospital. It also is a National Cancer Institute Cancer Center.
  • Ohns Hopkins Hospital, BaltimoreAdmited as worldwide for it's advances in cancer research and treatment Johns Hopkins is one of the most appreciated cancer centers.
  • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, BostonIt was rated Number 1 in New England and also a re known breast cancer center all over the world.
  • Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnThe Mayo Clinic is account as one of the best when it comes to patient satisfaction. Located in Minnesota clinics are also available in Florida and Arizona.
  • Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C.Established on campus at Duke University.This medical center is the newest of the top cancer centers on the list.
  • University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann ArborIt is also one of the best treatment center where Patient care is a top priority.
  • UCLA Medical Center, Los AngelesIt is located in los angeles.The cancer research is award winning. UCLA has made the list 15 successive years.
  • University of California, San Francisco Medical Center
  • It is located in the state of California.It is one of the Comprehensive Cancer Center.
  • Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical CenterIt is located in los angeles  .Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center was named once again to the Best Hospitals Honor Roll.
  • Stanford Hospital and ClinicsIt is located in Palo Alto.It is on the rank of no 11 in cancer treatment centers.
  • Hospital of the University of PennsylvaniaIt is located in Philadelphia and a well known treatment center of breast cancer.
  • University of Chicago Medical CenterIt is located in Chicago and on ranked 15 in Cancer treatment centers.
  • Brigham and Women's HospitalIt is located in Boston.It is also one of the most appreciated cancer centers.
  • Barnes-Jewish Hospital/Washington UniversityIt is located in saint Louis.It is a famous treatment center in washington.
  • Vanderbilt University Medical CenterIt is located in Nashville.
  • Moffitt Cancer CenterIt is located in tampa and also a well known treatment center.
  • City of HopeIt is located in Duarte.It in on no 20 in the ranking of cancer treatment centers.
  • University of Maryland Medical CenterIt is located in Baltimore and also a re known breast cancer center all over the world.
  • University of Iowa Hospitals and ClinicsIt is located in Iowa City.
  • Yale-New Haven HospitalIt is located in New Haven.
  • New York-Presbyterian University Hospital of Columbia and CornellIt is located in New York.
  • NYU Langone Medical CenterIt is also located in New York.
  • Ohio State University James Cancer HospitalIt is located in columbus.
  • Northwestern Memorial HospitalIt is located in Chicago.
  • Fox Chase Cancer CenterIt is located in Philadelphia.
  • Shands at the University of FloridaIt is located in Gainesville florida.
  • University of Wisconsin Hospital and ClinicsIt is located in Madison.

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Stage 4 Breast Cancer Treatment Options

Stage 4 of the breast cancer is a advance stage of breast cancer. AT this stage the cancer has spread in the body and affect the areas such as bones, brain, lungs and  liver. At this stage cancer becomes fatal Because different areas may be involved aim  treatments such as surgery or radiation alone are not adequate. As yet treatment of stage 4 breast cancer does not provide a cure for the disease. With shrinking the size of cancer treatment can drag the disease. It is usually life warn stage.


These are some of the most typical treatments for stage IV breast cancer:

Chemotherapy:Chemotherapy at this stage is the often main alternative.It can drag the growth of the cancer. chemotherapy is given by mouth as well as injected into a vein.Chemotherapy associates to the use of anti-cancer drugs to wipe out  breast cancer cells.


Chemotherapy can be used for three main objectives:
Adjuvant therapy(The aim of this therapy is to restrain cancer from coming back after the initial surgery and radiation).

Neo-adjuvant therapy(The aim of this therapy is to shrink the size of the cancer).

To treat metastatic disease(The aim of this therapy is to kill those cells of cancer which have spread to other parts of the body).

These are some effective medicines which are used in treatment of stage 4 breast cancer.
  • Anthracyclines
  • Taxanes
  • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
  • Capecitabine (Xeloda)
  • Vinorelbine (Navelbine)
  • Gemcitabine (Gemzar)
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin)
Hormonal Therapy:Hormonal therapy at this stage abolishes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from building.Hormonal therapy can help women with hormone receptor-positive cancers.Hormones are substances produced by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream.Hormone therapy is given to stop the body's consistently transpiring estrogen and effort against  the cancer's growth.

Few hormonal therapies for stage 4

Tamoxifen(Tamoxifen can be used in women of any age.Durable use of this anti-estrogen drug has been found to reduce the chance of breast cancer re occurrence).

Aromatase Inhibitors(In this procedure aromatase inhibitors are use.Aromatase inhibitors are very adequate in treating breast cancer  both in early stage and advanced disease).

Arimidex (Chemical name anastrozole.Aromatase inhibitor used to treat estrogen receptor positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women).

Aromasin (Chemical name exemestane.It is used for women with early breast cancer after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen treatment this medication is used to treat certain types of breast cancer like hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer).


Biological Therapy :

This therapy initiates the body's own immune or hormonal system to act on cancer cells  while leaving healthy cells relatively intact..One action is to use antibodies to attack cancer cells or block their activities. An antibody is a protein that can fix to specific proteins in the body, called antigens. Antibodies can be natural or made artificially as well. It stops the harmful protein from making the cancer grow and makes chemotherapy more effective.Antibodies can be natural and as well made artificially. One example of a artificial antibody is trastuzumab or Herceptin.

Herceptin can act in three ways to stop cancer cells from growing
It  clogs to special receptors on the cancer cells stopping from arising.
It indicates the body's own immune system to attack on  the cancer cells.
It can effort  with chemotherapy preventing cancer cells damaged by chemo from reforming themselves.

Surgical procedure:

Surgical procedure at this stage is used in some cases.This treatment is not used to cure the cancer But may help in reducing pain and other symptoms in areas where the cancer has spread.

Radiation therapy(Radio therapy):

At this stage radiation therapy is also used in some cases.This treatment is not used to cure the cancer But may help in reducing pain it is also use to treat cancer that has spread into the bones and brain.

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Ovarian Cancer - Symptoms and Types

This is the  cancer that originates in the tissues of the ovary,  the female reproductive gland in  in which eggs or ova are formed. In United States,  21,880 new cases of ovarian cancer occurred in 2010 that caused 13,850 deaths. This cancer is the fifth major cause of death from cancer in women.

Signs and Symptoms
At early stage, it causes a distention in the abdomen. It has not-specific symptoms such as abdominal pain and discomfort, an abdominal mass, backache, bloating in tummy, constipation, urinary urgency, tiredness. More specific symptoms are:
  • Pelvic pain
  • Weight loss
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Fluid accumulation, such as ascites in abdominal cavity
Types
Ovarian cancer has many types. Two common cancers are:

  • Ovarian epithelial carcinoma
  • Germ cell tumor

Ovarian epithelial carcinoma
It is also known as surface epithelial-stromal tumor and is the most common type of ovarian cancer. It is ,treated through chemotherapy that includes intravenous (IV) and intraperitoneal (IP) administration. US Cancer Institute has recommended these methods for this cancer management. Chemotherapeutic agents that are more preferred include a platinum drug with a taxane; since, it is more effective than others. Surface epithelial-stromal tumor is subdivided into these classes:
  • Serous tumor
  • Mucinous tumor
  • Endometrioid tumor
  • Clear cell tumor
  • Brenner tumor

Ovarian germ cell tumor
Among all ovarian cancers, germ cell tumors occur in 30 % of the cases. Most of them are benign and usually affect young girls and women.  This cancer is formed insides the gonads (ovary and testis). Those tumors that form outside can be birth defects that are nothing but a result of deformity or a problem during embryo development. This is further divided into two broad categories:
  • Germinomatous
  • Nongerminomatous

Types of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors

It is the tumor that originates in trophoblastic cells. ( cells that help an embryo attach to the uterus and assist in the formation of the placenta after an egg is fertilized by a sperm in female fetus).

Types
Mainly gestational trophoblastic tumors are of two kinds:
  1. Hydatidiform mole
  2. Choriocarcinoma
This cancer is also called getational trophoblastic disease.

Hydatidiform mole
A pregnancy that has some abnormalities is a molar pregnancy, in which a non-viable egg after fertilization gets implanted in the uterus and causes pathological problems in woman suffering from this abnormality. This cancer is further classified into:
  1. Partial mole
  2. Complete mole
In a complete mole, a single cell is combined withan egg that has lost its DNA. Such cancers are at an increased risk of developing into choriocarcinoma. This is a malignant type or trophoblastic tumor.

Diagnosis
In this cancer, mostly there is a
  1. Painless vaginal bleeding during the fourth or the fifth month of pregnancy.
  2. A fairly large sized uterus and the ovaries
  3. Hyperemesis (excessive vomiting)
  4. Increased blood pressure ( sometimes)
  5. Protein in urine
  6. Very high levels of human chronic gonadotropin (hCG)
Treatment
Hydatidiform moles are treated by evacuating uterus through a surgical curettage or uterine suction as soon as it is possible, after its presence is confirmed. In some cases, chemotherapy is also given that works well. The women with molar pregnancies are advised to get pregnant for at least one year, as the treatment becomes more complicated if multiple molar pregnancies occur. Carboprost medication is also given to contract uterus.

Choriocarcinoma
This is more aggressive and malignant cancer and usually affects placenta. The symptoms are:
  1. vaginal bleeding
  2. chest pain
  3. breathlessness
  4. increased quantitative ß-hCG levels
  5. hemoptysis (bleeding in cough)

Monday, March 28, 2011

Stage 3 Breast Cancer Treatment Options

In stage III of the breast cancer the cancer still hasn't spread far beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes.At this stage there are greater  numbers of lymph nodes involves  more than ten or the tumor is so large it extends to the chest wall or involves the skin of the breast.There is various options of treatment at this stag.At this stage Women mostly do well with a combination of treatments.These combination includes the following options.

Following are the treatment options of stage 3 breast cancer

Surgical procedure:Surgery for stage III breast cancers may consist of a mastectomy or lumpectomy..If the tumor is small so lumpectomy is effective for the removal of tumor.In this procedure tumor and some of the damage tissues are removed.For bigger tumor mastectomy is effective.In this procedure the entire breast is removed.At this stage after a mastectomy be there is also a need of breast reconstruction.

Chemotherapy:
Chemotherapy is a common treatment at this stage.This treatment can damage any remaining cancer cells that were missed in surgery.Chemotherapy can also used before surgery to minimize the size of tumor.You would still need chemotherapy after surgery.In some cases where surgery does not work chemotherapy may be the main treatment.

Hormonal Therapy:Hormonal therapy can help women with hormone receptor-positive cancers..Hormonal therapy is a cancer treatment that abolishes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from building.Hormones are substances produced by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream.These drugs include tamoxifen aromatase inhibitors like Arimidex, Aromasin, and Femara.



Few hormonal therapies for stage 2


Tamoxifen(In this therapy a pill named tamoxifen is use.Tamoxifen can be used in women of any age.Long-term use of this anti-estrogen drug has been found to reduce the chance of breast cancer re occurrence).

Aromatase Inhibitors(In this therapy aromatase inhibitors are use.Aromatase inhibitors are very  effective in treating breast cancer  both in early stage and advanced disease).

Arimidex (Chemical name anastrozole.Aromatase inhibitor used to treat estrogen receptor positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women).

Aromasin (Chemical name exemestane.It is used for women with early breast cancer after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen treatment this medication is used to treat certain types of breast cancer like hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer).



Biological Therapy :Biological therapy is a new way of treating cancer.Biological therapy for breast cancer takes benefit of the body's own immune or hormonal system to act on cancer cells  while leaving healthy cells relatively intact.One strategy is to use antibodies to attack cancer cells or block their activities. An antibody is a protein that can attach to specific proteins in the body, called antigens. Antibodies can be natural or made artificially as well. It stops the harmful protein from making the cancer grow and makes chemotherapy more effective.

Radiation therapy(Radio therapy):Radiotherapy is standard for women with stage III breast cancer who get surgery. Radiation can destroy any of the cancer cells that were alive.

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Stage 2 Breast Cancer Treatment Options

Stage 2 of the breast cancer is not a very advance stage of cancer.Breast cancer is a complicated and fatal disease but if it is diagnose in early stage so its treatment is not as much difficult as in advance stage.At this stage cancer hasn't reached  beyond the breast at all in some cases in nearby lymph nodes. At this stage many treatment can help.There is various options of treatment at this stag.At this stage Women mostly do well with a combination of treatments.These combination includes the following options.


Following are the treatment options of stage 2 breast cancer

Surgical procedure:surgical procedure is standard for breast cancer.Surgery for stage II breast cancers may consist of a mastectomy or lumpectomy.If the tumor is small so lumpectomy is effective for the removal of tumor.In this procedure tumor and some of the damage tissues are removed.For bigger tumor mastectomy is effective.In this procedure the entire breast is removed.At this stage after a mastectomy  may be there is a need of breast reconstruction.

Radiation therapy(Radio therapy):Radiation therapy is a grade of cancer treatment that account high levels of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing and dividing  while minimizing damage to healthy cells.Radiation therapy  also called radiotherapy.At this stage It can kill cancer cells that were missed during surgery.At stage II cancer patients who get mastecomy will also need radiation if the tumor is big.

Chemotherapy:At this stage chemotherapy mostly used after breast cancer surgery.This treatment can damage any remaining cancer cells that were missed in surgery.Chemotherapy can also used before surgery to minimize the size of tumor.If it works  the tumor could  then be small enough to removed in a lumpectomy.

Hormonal Therapy:Around two-thirds of women having breast cancer have tumors that contain estrogen receptors called ER-positive.This type of cancer rely upon the female hormone to grow.Hormonal therapy is a cancer treatment that abolishes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from building.Hormones are substances produced by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream.At this stage medicines can prevent the tumor from getting the hormone it needs to grow.These drugs include tamoxifen,aromatase,Lupron and Zoladex.


Few hormonal therapies for stage 2


Tamoxifen(In this therapy a pill named tamoxifen is use.Tamoxifen can be used in women of any age.Long-term use of this anti-estrogen drug has been found to reduce the chance of breast cancer re occurrence).

Aromatase Inhibitors(In this therapy aromatase inhibitors are use.Aromatase inhibitors are very  effective in treating breast cancer  both in early stage and advanced disease).

Arimidex (Chemical name anastrozole.Aromatase inhibitor used to treat estrogen receptor positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women).

Aromasin (Chemical name exemestane.It is used for women with early breast cancer after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen treatment this medication is used to treat certain types of breast cancer like hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer).

Biological Therapy :Biological therapy is a new way of treating cancer.Biological therapy for breast cancer takes benefit of the body's own immune or hormonal system to act on cancer cells  while leaving healthy cells relatively intact.One strategy is to use antibodies to attack cancer cells or block their activities. An antibody is a protein that can attach to specific proteins in the body, called antigens. Antibodies can be natural or made artificially as well. It stops the harmful protein from making the cancer grow and makes chemotherapy more effective.

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Sunday, March 27, 2011

Stage 1 Breast Cancer Treatment Options

Stage 1 of the breast cancer is very initial stage of cancer. Breast cancer is a complicated and fatal disease but if it is diagnose in early stage so its treatment is not as much difficult as in advance stage. At this stage cancer hasn't reached  beyond the breast at all. So there is various options of treatment at this stag. At this stage Women mostly do well with a combination of treatments.These combination includes the following options.



Following are the treatment options of stage 1 breast cancer

Surgical procedure: Breast cancer surgery may be in the form of lumpectomy, partial mastectomy, segment mastectomy, quadrantectomy or mastectomy. Since the tumor is still small, so lumpectomy is better. In this procedure tumor and some of the damage tissues are removed. In some cases mastectomy is used , in which the whole breast is removed.In case of simple mastectomy, only the breast is removed and the lymph nodes are not explored.

Radiation therapy(Radio therapy):
Radiation therapy is a grade of cancer treatment that account high levels of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing and dividing  while minimizing damage to healthy cells.Radiation therapy  also called radiotherapy.In this stage radiation therapy involves using a large machine called a linear accelerator to deliver precise amounts of high-energy radiation.The radiotherapy stops the regeneration  of cancer cells and  minimizing damage to healthy tissues.

Chemotherapy:In cancer treatment chemotherapy commit to the use of chemicals to kill or slow the growth of briskly multiplying cells like cancer cells.

At this stage chemotherapy can be used for three chief purposes:

Adjuvant therapy (The aim of is therapy prevent or postpone cancer from coming back after the initial surgery and radiation).

Neo-adjuvant therapy (often the cancer in the breast is so big that compress it first with chemotherapy may make it easier to do surgery.This therapy helps in reducing the size of the cancer).

for the  treatment of metastatic disease (If the cancer appears  in parts of the body other than the breast and lymph glands under the arm, it is called metastatic disease. Chemotherapy can be one of the main ways to kill cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body.

Hormonal Therapy:

Hormonal therapy is a cancer treatment that abolishes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from building. Hormones are substances produced by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream.About two-thirds of women with breast cancer have tumors that contain estrogen receptors called ER-positive.


Few hormonal therapies for stage 1


Tamoxifen(In this therapy a pill named tamoxifen is use.Tamoxifen can be used in women of any age.Long-term use of this anti-estrogen drug has been found to reduce the chance of breast cancer re occurrence).

Aromatase Inhibitors(In this therapy aromatase inhibitors are use.Aromatase inhibitors are very  effective in treating breast cancer  both in early stage and advanced disease).

Biological Therapy :

Biological therapy for breast cancer takes benefit of the body's own immune or hormonal system to act on cancer cells  while leaving healthy cells relatively intact.One strategy is to use antibodies to attack cancer cells or block their activities. An antibody is a protein that can attach to specific proteins in the body, called antigens. Antibodies can be natural or made artificially as well.

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Friday, March 25, 2011

Causes of Breast Cancer

There are so many causes of breast cancer.There are so many risk factors that increase a chance of getting this disease.Some changes in DNA can cause normal breast cells to become tumor and then cancer.

DNA is the chemical in every cell from which our genes are made. Some inherited DNA mutations can increase danger for developing cancer and cause the cancers that run in some families. For instance, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes.They keep cancer tumors from forming.




These following are the main causes or factors of breast cancer :

AgeAge is a major factor of breast cancer.Breast cancer may occur at any age, though the risk of breast cancer increases with age.Breast cancer is rarely found in women younger than 35.About 2 out of 3 women with invasive breast cancer are 55 or older when the cancer is found.

Former Breast CancerA woman with a former breast cancer in one breast has three times greater  risk of developing a new cancer in the other breast or in another part of the same breast. This refers to the risk for developing a new tumor and not a reappearance of the first cancer.After 20 years, a woman has a 10% to 15% chance of developing a new breast cancer.

Genetic CausesAround  85% of women with breast cancer do not have history of breast cancer in their families. Of the remaining 15%, about one-third appear to have a genetic abnormality. The risk of breast cancer is about two times higher among women who have cancer history in their families.There is great interest in genes linked to breast cancer. About 5-10% of breast cancers are believed to be heredity.

Genetic Mutations
Genetic mutations are simply defined as  (permanent changes in genetic material) that place people at increased risk of breast cancer. .BRCA1 and BRCA2 are abnormal genes that, when inherited,distinctly increase the risk of breast cancer.Women who have the BRCA1 gene tend to have breast cancer at an early age.In some BRCA1 groups, there is a chance of developing both breast and ovarian cancers.

Hormones Causes
Hormones also play a vital role in the development of breast cancer.Breast cancer risk is increased in women having known exposures to sex hormones, particularly estrogen (female sex hormone). Therefore, breast cancer risk is high in women.Having a child before age 30 years may provide some protection, and having no children may increase the risk for developing breast cancer.

Environmental CausesRadiation treatment increases the risk of developing breast cancer. For example, females who received radiotherapy to the upper body for cure of some disease before 30 years of age have a incomparably higher rate of breast cancer than the general population.

Alcohol UseThe risk of breast cancer is also  increased by the use of alcohol. Women who consume one alcoholic beverage a day have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer.On the other hand  breast cancer risk is nearly doubled in women who have more than three drinks in a day.

Cigarette smokingSmoking also increases the risk of breast cancer. Smoking increases the risk of so many other cancers as well as heart disease and lung emphysema.Smoking can minimize  the treatment options of breast cancer patients, since certain types of reconstructive surgery cannot be used for women who smoke.

Abortion/miscarriage historyThese factors also play a major role in increasing risk of breast cancer. Women who have had induced abortions are on higher risk of breast cancer.

ObesityIt is also proved that obesity increased risk of breast cancer. For example, the heaviest 10% of women age 50 and older may have up to a 20% higher risk of breast cancer, and the tallest 10% of women age 30 to 49 years may have a 30% higher risk.

RacismRacism also act as a factor of breast cancer.White women are slightly more likely to get breast cancer than African-American women.

Lack of exerciseresearches show that exercise decline breast cancer risk. One research found that  Walking 10 hours a week reduced the risk a little more.

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Cervical Cancer - Symptoms, causes and prevention

It is the cancer that originates in the tissues of the cervix, an organ which connects the uterus and vagina. Usually it grows gradually without showing any symptoms in its initial stage. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is always the cause of cervical cancer. According to an estimate, in the year 2010, there were 12,200 new cases of this cancer were observed in U.S only, that caused 42, 10 deaths.

Symptoms
The symptoms are not there at early stage, but later on when the disease gets malignant is has:
  • Heavy vaginal bleeding
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • contact bleeding
  • vaginal mass
  • Metastases in abdomen, lungs or other organs.
  • Pelvic pain
  • Backache
  • Leg pain
  • Weight reduction
  • Loss of appetite
  • Bone fractures
  • Single swollen leg
  • Fatigue
  • Urine or feces leakage
Causes
As mentioned earlier, HPV (human papillomavirus) infection is the main causative factor for cervical cancer in women. However, all the causes are not known. Women with multi-sexual partners are at a greater risk of developing cervical cancer. Other co-factors are:
  • HIV infection
  • Chlamydia infection
  • Poor diet
  • Multiple pregnancies
  • Smoking
  • Stress and related disorders
  • Hormonal contraception
  • Exposure to diethylstilbestrol, a hormonal drug
  • Family history of cervical cancer
  • early age sexual intercourse or pregnancies
  • oral contraceptives
  • genetic background
Cervical cancer prevention
It can be treated or prevented with:
  • vaccination
  • condoms
  • Diet
  • Screening
  • Abstinence from smoking or tobacco intake
Vaccination is used to cure cervical cancer. Gardasil is given to women with HPV types and others. It is highly effective-up to 98%.
Condoms give some protection from cervical cancer but there is contradiction about its effective nature.
Diet rich in vitamin A, C, E, and folic acid is recommended to prevent this cancer.
Screening has drastically reduced the occurrence and mortality from cervical cancer in developed countries.

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Prostate Cancer facts and figures

It is a type of cancer that originates in the tissues of the prostate, a gland below the bladder, in male reproductive system. Men of older age are usually affected by prostate cancer. Most of these cancers grow slowly but in some cases these can be aggressive and fatal. The cells of the cancer can spread to the neighboring body organs, especially lymph nodes and the bones. According to an estimate, in the year 2010, there were 217, 730 new cases observed in U.S that caused 32,050 deaths.

Symptoms
Prostate cancer shows no symptoms at an early stage. It is diagnosed when PSA is elevated during a medical checkup. Sometimes, the cancer causes the symptoms that are similar to prostatic hyperplasia. The signs are:
  • Frequent urination
  • Hematuria ( blood in urine)
  • Nocturia (excessive urination at night)
  • Dysuria (a painful urination)
  • Difficulty in starting and maintain urination
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Difficult erection
  • Bone pain especially in vertebrae, ribs and pelvis.
  • Compression of spinal cord
  • Fecal and urinary incontinence
What causes prostate cancer?
The specific causes of this cancer are not known. Risk factors are:
  • Old age, over 50 years
  • Family history: In men with family members affected by prostate cancer, there are double the chances of developing this serious disease.
  • Hypertension(a  high blood pressure)
  • Genetic background
  • Diet considerably low in vitamin B6, vitamin E, Vitamin D, selenium, lycopene and soy foods.
  • Medications: Studies have revealed that prostate cancer is associated with medications, medical procedures and conditions. Statins (cholesterol reducing drugs can decrease the risk of cancer)
  • Inflammation of infection of the prostate can trigger the disease
Treatment
Prostate cancer is treated through:
  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Vaccination and
  • Immunotherapy
  • Medications

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Bladder Cancer Causes and Treatment

This cancer originates in the bladder, the hollow organ which stores urine. In this disease, abnormal cells multiply uncontrollably into the bladder. In 2010, there were 70,530 new cases observed that caused 14,680 deaths in U.S, according to an estimate.

Symptoms

Bladder cancer is characterized by:
  • Blood in the urine (gross hematuria)
  • Polyuria (frequent urination)
  • Pain during urination
Some of these symptoms occur in cystitis, prostrate infections and kidney cancer also. So, it must not be confused with other disorders.

What Causes bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer can be caused by these factors:
  • Smoking and Tobacco consumption
  • Exposure to carcinogens such as 2-Naphthylamine or benzidine
  • Frequent exposure to hair dyes
  • Poor intake of fruits and yellow-orange vegetables such as carrots
  • Severe deficiency of selenium
  • Considerably low intake of citrus fruits may trigger this cancer

How is Bladder cancer diagnosed?

There are several methods to diagnose:
  • Biopsy during cystoscopy
  • Urine cytology, a positive result shows the presence of cancer
  • Urine bound markers
  • Hexvix fluorescence
  • White-light cystoscopy

Treatment for bladder cancer

The treatment for bladder cancer depends upon the size of the tumor. Superficial tumors can be removed with the help of an electrocautery device, attached to a cystoscope. Immunotherapy is used as well, in the form of BCG instillation if the disease is benign. But, this therapy works in the 2/3 or the patients.

Chemotherapy is another option, especially valrunicin is used in bladder, to treat BCG-refractory CIS disease in the situation where cystectomy cannot help. People who are somehow affected with this cancer for the second time, it is really complicated to treat them.

For such patients, Csytectomy is recommended by most of the physicians. It is approved by the European Association of Urologists (EAU), and the American Urologists Association (AUA). A combination of chemotherapy and radiation is also used to cure this serious disease.

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Breast Cancer Treatment Options

In this era the treatment of breast cancer is possible now.There are various  procedures of breast cancer treatment.Treatment options  depends on the stage of the cancer while it is in the breast only or has reached to other places in the body, the type of breast cancer, certain trait of the cancer cells and while  the cancer is arrived in the other breast. A woman's age, menopausal status while a woman still has menstrual periods and her health status can also influence treatment options.

Following are the treatment options

Surgical procedure :Verdict about surgical procedure depend on many factors.Doctor usually decides the kind of surgery that’s most appropriate for existing cancer  based on the stage of the cancer.These are the kinds of surgical procedures.

Lumpectomy (known as breast-conserving surgery, is the dismissal of only the tumor and a small amount of surrounding tissue)

Mastectomy (is the dismissal of all of the tissues of breast. Mastectomy is more clarified and it used to be because in most cases,in  this procedure the  muscles under the breast usually not removes.)

Lymph node dismissal (can take place during lumpectomy and mastectomy if the biopsy shows that breast cancer has reached outside the milk duct.)

Breast reconstruction (is the reforming of the breast after mastectomy and sometimes lumpectomy. Reconstruction can take place at the same time as cancer-removing surgery.

Prophylactic mastectomy (is defensive  dismissal of the breast to lower the risk of breast cancer).

Prophylactic ovary removal (is a defensive surgery that decreases the amount of estrogen in the body,which creates difficulty  for estrogen to stimulate the development of breast cancer)


Cryotherapy (also called cryosurgery, uses acute cold to freeze and kill cancer cells.At once, cryotherapy is an exploratory  treatment for breast cancer)

Chemotherapy

In cancer treatment chemotherapy commit to the use of chemicals to kill or slow the growth of briskly multiplying cells like cancerous cells.Chemotherapy treatment uses medicine to weaken and destroy cancer cells in the body.Chemotherapy is derived from the word "chemo" is a systemic therapy which intend it affects the whole body by going through the bloodstream.

Chemotherapy consist of unification of drugs.For breast cancer, chemotherapy drugs are given directly into a vein or orally by mouth. Once the drugs reached in to the  the bloodstream they travel to all parts of the body in order to reach cancer cells that may have reached beyond the breast therefore chemotherapy is considered a "systemic" form of breast cancer treatment., chemotherapy may be given after a lumpectomy or mastectomy. This treatment helps to decline the chance of breast cancer habituation.This is one of the most effective treatment of breast cancer.


Radiation Therapy (Radio therapy)

Radiation therapy is a grade of cancer treatment that account high levels of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing and dividing  while minimizing damage to healthy cells.Radiation therapy  also called radiotherapy.Radiation can decline the exposure, of breast cancer reappearance by about 70%.In radio therapy radiation is delivered to the affected breast and, in some cases to the lymph nodes under the arm or at the collarbone.Radiation therapy is mostly  given after a lumpectomy and rarely after a mastectomy to reduce your risk of local reappearance of cancer in that breast.


Types of radiations
There are two main types of radiation

Internal Radiation(internal radiation is not a common method of giving radiation. It is being studied for use after lumpectomy. Internal radiation is most commonly delivered using multiple small tubes).

External Radiation(External radiation, at times called external beam radiation, is the most common type of radiation. In this technique, a large machine called a linear accelerator aims a beam of high-energy radiation at the portion affected by the cancer).

Hormonal Therapy


Hormonal therapy is a cancer treatment that abolishes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from building. Hormones are substances produced by glands in the body and circulated in the blood. Hormonal therapy medicines are whole-body treatment for hormone-receptor-positive breast cancers.

Targeted Therapies
Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that includes medicines or other substances to recognize and destroy specific cancer cells without damaging normal cells. Monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are two types of targeted therapies used in the treatment of breast cancer.

Holistic MedicineThe aim of  this medicine is to stable the person  physically, mentally, and emotionally.It  highlights the need to look at the whole person, including analysis of physical, nutritional, environmental, emotional, social, spiritual and lifestyle values.

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Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Pancreatic Cancer - things you must know

The presence of cancer cells in the tissues of the pancreas shows that the person is affected by pancreatic cancer. The cells are malignant and it is also known as exocrine cancer.

Symptoms
Pancreatic cancer does not show any symptoms at an early stage. Those that are developed later on, are non specific and of vary from person to person. This is the reason; the cancer goes undiagnosed unless it has attained a severe level, so it is a silent killer. Common symptoms are:
  • Pain in upper abdominal area
  • Nausea or vomiting with loss of appetite
  • Weight loss to a considerable extent
  • Diabetes Mellitus or increased blood glucose levels.
  • Painless jaundice that leaves a yellowish tint in the eyes; in severe cases, it makes skin yellow. It may also cause steatorrhea or a pale stool
  • Clinical depression that sometimes may occur before the diagnosis of cancer
  • Trousseau sign, that causes clotting of the blood in portal blood vessels and related problems

Causes
Causative factors are:
  • Old age, especially above 60
  • Being male, as there are 30% more chances than in females
  • Taking diet with lower amount of fruits and vegetables
  • Increased consumption of red meat
  • Diet with high content of sugar, especially fructose that is somehow associated with pancreatic cancer; soft drinks
  • Excessive smoking and tobacco intake
  • Chronic pancreatic
  • Obesity
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Gingivitis or periodontal disease
  • Family history-about 5 to 10% of pancreatic cancer patients have a family history
  • Alcohol, it is unknown whether it is associated with this cancer or not. But excessive drinking causes a chronic pancreatic that in turn can cause Cancer.
Treatment options
So far, pancreatic cancer management is done in two ways:
  • Surgery
  • chemotherapy
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Endometrial Cancer types, symptoms and causes

This caner is formed in the tissues lining the uterus (it is a small, pear-shaped hollow organ in woman’s pelvis). In the year 2010, 43,470 cases of endometrial cancer were found which resulted in 7,950 deaths.

Types
This caner is mainly of two kinds:
  1. Carcinoma
  2. Sarcoma
Carcinoma
Most of the endometrial cancers are of this type that is usually adenocarcinomas. They are formed in the lining of endometrium and arise as a single layer of epithelial cell. It has many sub-types. Some classify carcinoma into tow pathogenetic groups:
  • Type I: Pre- and peri-menopausal women are mostly affected by these cancers. In many cases, they are less invasive into the underlying wall of uterus.
  • Type II: These cancers are more common in African-American women and are likely to occur in older, post-menopausal age. Unlike Type I, these carry a poorer prognosis. Increased exposure to estrogen is not associated with Type II Carcinomas. The sub-types are:
    • High-grade endometrioid cancer
    • Uterine papillary serous carcinoma
    • Uterine clear cell carcinoma

Sarcoma
Sarcomas are the cancers that arise in the non-glandular connective tissues of the endometrium. Uterine carcinomasarcoma that was formerly called malignant mixed mullerian tumor is a rare cancer type that has glandular as well as sarcomatous cancer cells; but the origin of these cells is not known yet.

Symtoms of Endometrial Cancer
These are the signs that the patient experiences:
  • Spotting during postmenopausal age
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Abnormal menopausal periods
  • Uterine bleeding
  • Anemia
  • Pelvic cramping or lower abdominal pain
  • White or clear discharge from vagina in women with menopause.
Causes
Women with these problems can be at a greater risk of developing endometrial cancer:
  • Obesity
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Hypertension
  • Infertility
  • Diabetes
  • Tamoxifen
  • Excessive alcohol intake
  • Diet high in animal fat
  • Breast cancer
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Early onset of menstruation cycle(menarche)
  • Late menopause
  • Nulliparity (never having a pregnancy)
  • Age above 35 years

Some facts and symptoms of Colon Cancer

Colon is the longest part of the large intestines; and the cancer that originates in the tissues of this organ is colon cancer. The other two names are: colorectal cancer (CRC) and large bowel cancer. The cells in this cancer are formed in the colon, rectum and the appendix. In U.S, colon cancer ranks at number four in the list of the most common types of cancer. According to an estimate, it causes 655,000 deaths annually across the globe. In 2010, there were 142,570 cases of colorectal cancer in U.S only that caused 51,370 deaths there.

Symptoms
The location of tumor formed in the bowel, determines what kind of symptoms the patients are likely to experience. Those with metastasis have different symptoms than the others. The symptoms are classified as:
  • Local
  • Constitutional
  • Metastatic
Local symptoms are observed if the tumor is closer to the anus. It causes constipation, diarrhea, a feeling of incomplete defecation, a reduced diameter of the stool, and tenesmus. Other signs are lower gastrointestinal bleeding, melena, black colored stool, bowel obstruction due to the formation of a large tumor that fills the whole of the lumen area. In this condition, abdominal distention, pain, constipation and vomiting also occur. In addition, a large tumor in left colonic area can make the left ureter, causing hydronephrosis.

Constitutional symptoms occur if a tumor causes chronic occult bleeding that in turn results in iron deficiency anemia which consequently leads to palpitation(irregular heartbeat), fatigue, pallor(pale-skin). Weight loss can also be observed because the patient loses his appetite that makes him consume less.

People who are at risk
The risk factors of colon cancer are:
  • Smoking
  • Old age especially above 60 years
  • History of cancer. Those who have once got cancer, may have it again
  • Family history of cancer
  • Gardner syndrome
  • Polyps of the colon
  • Diet high in red meat, low in fish, poultry, fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Exposure to viruses
  • Lack of physical exercise
  • Exogenous hormones
  • Low levels of selenium
  • Poor intake of vitamin B6
  • Lithocholic acid
  • Environmental factors
  • Heavy alcohol intake

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Detail

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma refers to a large group of cancers of lymphocytes (the white blood cells). It can occur at any age and causes weight loss, fever and abnormally enlarged lymph nodes. In U.S, an estimated 65,540 cases were observed and the deaths occurred with these were 20,210.

Types of NHL

This cancer is of various types. At present, more than seventy different types are known that together make four large groups. All these types can be malignant or mild and can be formed from either B-cells or T-cells.
  • Burkitt lymphoma,
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL),
  • diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,
  • follicular lymphoma,
  • immunoblastic large cell lymphoma,
  • precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and
  • Mantle cell lymphoma.
T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas include
  • mycosis fungoides,
  • anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and
  • precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma.
Causes
There are various risk factors of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, such as:
  • smoking
  • Old age that is over 60 years
  • Gender: The occurrence of NHL is higher in men than in women, however its certain types are more common among women but the reasons are unknown yet.
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Exposure to chemicals
  • Auto-immune disease
  • Infections of certain type
  • Weakened Immunity
  • Obesity
  • Diet  deficient or lower in vegetables

How is it diagnosed?
This cancer is detected with imaging screening technologies, biopsy procedures and tumor markers carried out by an expert in this field.

Signs and Symptoms
NHL has these symptoms:
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Lymphoma of the chest
  • Abdominal lymphoma
  • Lymphoma in the brain
  • Lymphoma of the skin
  • Weight loss
  • Heavy sweating at night
  • Fever
  • Bruising and bleeding
  • Severe infections
  • Fatigue
Treatment
NHL can be treated with:
  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplant
  • Palliative care
  • Clinical trials
  • Complementary and alternative therapies

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Breast Cancer Stages

The stage of the Cancer is depend on the area of the tumor while the cancer is invasive or non-invasive, lymph nodes are included or not  or the cancer has spread beyond the breast.The motive of the staging system is to help in arrangement  of the the different factors of cancer in to different categories.

The following stages are used for breast cancer;

Stage 0

Stage 0 is used to explain non-invasive breast cancers, such as DCIS and LCIS. In stage 0, there is no affirmation of cancer cells or non-cancerous abnormal cells breaking out of the part of the breast in which they started, or of getting through to or invading neighboring normal tissue.

Stage I

Stage I indicates invasive breast cancer (cancer cells are breaking through to or invading neighboring normal tissue) in which  the tumor becomes up to 2 centimeters and no lymph nodes are involved.  No tumor is found in the breast  but small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are arrived in the lymph nodes and  the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are arrived  in the lymph nodes.

Stage II

Stage II is divided into two grades known as IIA and IIB.

Stage IIA (Indicates invasive breast cancer) No tumor is arrived in the breast, but cancer is arrived in the axillary lymph nodes (lymph nodes under the arm) and the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes and the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

Stage IIB (Indicates invasive breast cancer)The tumor is larger than 2 but no larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

Stage III

Stage III is divided into three grades known as IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC


Stage IIIA(Indicates invasive breast cancer) No tumor is arrived  in the breast. Cancer is found in axillary lymph nodes that are fixed to each other or to other structures or cancer may be found in lymph nodes near the breastbone and the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has developed  to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone.

Stage IIIB(Indicates invasive breast cancer)The size of tumour is not fix and may be of any size and has expand to the chest wall and/or skin of the breast  and  may have expand  to axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone.

Stage IIIC (Indicates invasive breast cancer)in stage IIIC, there may be no symptom of cancer in the breast or the tumor may be any size and may have spread to the chest wall and the skin of the breast .The cancer has spread to lymph nodes above or below the collarbone and the cancer may have spread to axillary lymph nodes or to lymph nodes near the breastbone

Stage IV(Indicates invasive breast cancer)

In this stage the cancer has reached to other organs of the body  usually the lungs, liver, bone, or brain.At this stage victim survives from bone pain,Shortness of breath ,Lack of appetite,Weight loss and neurological pain or weakness, headaches.Approximately 25% of breast cancers spread first to the bone. The bones of the spine, ribs, pelvis, skull, and long bones of the arms and legs are most often affected. Between 60% and 70% of women who die from breast cancer have eventually had it spread to their lungs. In 21% of cases, the lung is the only site of metastatis (spread). The liver is the third most common site for breast cancer to spread to after bone and lung. Two-thirds of women with metastatic breast cancer eventually have it spread to the liver.

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Thyroid Cancer in a Nutshell

Thyroid cancer- in a nutshell

It is the caner formed in the thyroid gland, an organ at the base of throat which produces hormones that help control body temperature, weight, heart rate and blood pressure.

Signs and symptoms
The first symptom that is usually found in the patients of this disease is the formation of a nodule in the neck where this gland is present. Many people get small nodules formed in their thyroids; according to research, 5% of these nodules re malignant. Initially, a large lymph node is formed. Later on, there is severe pain and a change in patient’s voice. If these nodules form under the age of 20, it can be lethal but uncommon.


Common Types
Four major types are:
  • Papillary thyroid cancer
  • Follicular thyroid cancer
  • Medullary thyroid cancer
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer
How is thyroid cancer diagnosed?
While doing a physical examination, if a thyroid nodule is found, the physician refers the patient to visit a thyroidologist, an endocrinologist or otolaryngologist to complete the diagnosis procedure. To confirm that a nodule is present in the neck region, an ultrasound is carried out. Besides, it also shows the position, size etc, of the nodule found in the thyroid gland. Measurement of anti-thyroid antibodies and thyroid stimulating hormone helps to know if there is occurrence of functional thyroid disease such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis that is known to be the cause of a benign nodular goiter.

Treatment options
This cancer is treated through surgery, in some cases. The surgeries commonly performed are:
  • Tracheostomy
  • Thyroidectomy
  • Lobectomy
In some patients, radioactive idonine-131 is used after the surgery to treat this cancer. This therapy does not work for those who have medullary, Hurthle cell and anaplastic cancer. In cases, when resecting cannot be done, when there is recurrence after resection; external irradiation is used. It can also bring relief from pain caused by bone metastasis.

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Types of Kidney Cancer

The cancer formed in the tissues of kidney is renal cancer. It has many types but the two are most common of all:
  1. Renal cell carcinoma
  2. Transitional cell carcinoma

1. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)
There are tiny tubes inside kidneys, known as proximal convoluted tubules that do the work of blood filtration to remove waste matter in it. This cancer forms in the lining of that tubule. Among the adults, RCC is the most common type, comprising about 80% of all affected renal cancer patients. Not only is the occurrence of this disease higher, it is also the most lethal type among all genitourinary tumors.


Symptoms: These are:
  • Abnormal urine color
  • Abdominal mass
  • Polycythemia
  • Lain pain
  • Anemia
  • Anorexia that results in weight loss

What’s the treatment: RCC is treated through nephrectomy in initial stages. Targeted therapies that are sunitinib, temsirolimus, interferon-alpha, bevacizumab and sorafebib are used but not with a hundred percent result.

2. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)
It usually is found in urinary system, the kidney, gall bladder and related organs. It is the second most common type of renal cancer and is found in the transitional epithelium, a tissue lining in the inner surface of organs that comprise urinary system.

Its symptoms depend upon the location and the severity of the cancer.

Causes: It can occur due to:
  • Drugs such as cyclophosphamide, phenacetin
  • Analgesics used on long-term basis
  • Exposure to radiations
  • Excessive smoking
  • Somatic mutation
  • Aniline dyes & naphtylamines

Treatment: It is really hard to treat Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). In a case when the tumor is not at advanced stage, it is surgically removed but usually reoccurs. Chemotherapy consisting of the MVAC regimen (methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin and cisplatin) is used. It is also treated with infusions of BCG into the bladder.

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What are different types of Leukemia

The cancer that occurs in blood-forming tissues such as the bone marrow is termed as blood cancer or leukemia. In this disease, a large number of blood cells are produced and enter into the blood stream. It has two main categories:
  1. Lymphocytic leukemia
  2. Myelogenous leukemia
These are further divided into four sub-classes that are:

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
Among young children, it is the most common type of blood cancer but adults also become a victim of it especially those at the age of 65 or above.

Treatment includes radiation and chemotherapy.

Subtypes are:
  • Precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Precursor T acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Burkitt’s leukemia
  • Acute biphenotypic leukemia
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
This type of cancer mostly affects people over the age of 55 but can sometime occur in younger ones also. Among children its occurrence is almost zero. Two thirds of these patients are males. The horrible fact is, this cancer is incurable but there are some treatments that have been found to be effective. B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia is one of its sub-types and more serious than CLL.

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
This type of leukemia affects adults more than children and is common among men. The treatment comprises of chemotherapy.

Sub-types are:
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia
  • Acute megakaryoblatic leukemia
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia mainly affects adults. The occurrence in children is uncommon as it affects a small number of them. This cancer is treated with imatinib (Gleevec) or other drugs prepared specifically for the patient of CML. Luckily the survival rates of this caner is high that is about 90%. Chronic monocytic leukemia is a subtype of CML.

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Breast Cancer Statistics

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer in females.It is also one of the chief causes of cancer death among women of all racism. Breast cancer is the second major agent of cancer deaths in women today  and is the most common cancer among women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers.

On the basis of a  survey about 1.3 million women will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually globally and about 465,000 will die from the disease. Breast cancer rates decreased by about 2% between 1998 and 2007 accord with survey on the other hand  this decrease was only among women aged 50 and older. Deaths from breast cancer have decreased too since 1990, likely from earlier detection and advances in treatment. About 1 in 35 women die from breast cancer.
  • Around 1 in 8 women in the U.S(12%) will develop invasive breast cancer in her life.
  • In 2010, around 207,090 new cases of invasive breast cancer were anticipated to be analyzed in women along with 54,010 new cases of non-invasive breast cancer.
  • Every women are at exposure for developing breast cancer. The older a woman is, the greater her chances of developing breast cancer. Approximately 77% of breast cancer cases occur in women over 50 years of age.
  • Around 1,970 new cases of invasive breast cancer were assumed to be diagnosed in men in 2010. Less than 1% of all new breast cancer cases occur in men.
  • From 1999 to 2006, breast cancer incidence rates decline by around 2% per year. One theory is that this decrease was incomplete due to the reduced use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) by women after the results of a large study called the Women’s Health Initiative were published in 2002. These results suggested a connection between HRT and increased breast cancer exposure.
  • Around 39,840 women  were assumed to die in 2010 from breast cancer, though death rates have been decreasing since 1990. These decreases are thought to be the result of treatment advances, earlier detection through screening, and increased awareness.
  • There were 2,680 female deaths from breast cancer in 2007
  • There were 26 male deaths from breast cancer in 2007
  • A woman's chance of dying from breast cancer before the age of 85 has been declining, from 1 in 29 risk in 1982 to a 1 in 37 risk in 2007
  • The age standardized rate of death due to breast cancer among women has decline from 30.8 deaths per 100,000 females in 1994 to 22.1 deaths per 100,000 females in 2007, a decrease of 27%.
  • Mortality rates for Indigenous women were not significantly different from those of their non-Indigenous counterparts (23.7 and 22.8 deaths per 100,000 women, respectively) between 2003-2007.
  • For women, there was an increase in relative survival after diagnosis of breast cancer between 1982-1987 and 2000-2006, five-year relative survival increased from 72.6% to 88.3% respectively.
  • In 2006 five-year relative survival was 98.2% for women with 0–10 mm tumors, 94.7% for women with 11–15 mm tumors, 93% for women with 16–19 mm tumors, 87.9% for women with 20–29 mm tumors, 73.1% for women with tumors 30 mm or greater.
  • Five-year relative survival was 96.5% for women with negative nodal status, 80.2% for women with positive nodal status in 2006.
  • It is assumed that in 2006 there were 143,967 women alive who had been diagnosed with breast cancer in the previous 25 years.
  • Breast cancer was the main cancer cause of burden of disease for females responsible for 61,100 disability-adjusted life years (40,600 years of life lost due to unexpected death and 20,500 years of healthy life lost due to disease, or disability) in 2010.

Monday, March 21, 2011

Difference between sexual orientation and sexual harassment

Sexual orientation, identity and harassment are the branches of a same tree but these terms are conceptually different. The broader concept is sexual identity; which says how a person identifies himself. This identification includes sexual orientation and sexual characteristics.

Sexual characteristics are based on biology i.e. related to gender identity, and we’ll be focusing more on orientation; because we can’t comment on the characteristics a person possesses, but we can help him to improve his metal growth by discussing a concept which is directly applied on his thoughts and ultimately lead him to action.

The general definition of this concept says that sexual orientation is the direction of one’s sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite or both sexes. Let’s understand this concept with a simple example of my academics, when I was in school, I had studied many subjects, but the subject in which I was more interested was mathematics, because of its problem solving, finance related nature, so in future that interest of mine had lead me, to choose the field of finance, it means that my career orientation, the direction of my career was finance. Similarly when it comes to one’s sexual life, then the interest of a person defines the sexual orientation of that person but this interest is limited to three categories same, opposite or both.

So according to my understanding, in actual sexual orientation is more like an appearance, why am I called a girl? Other than biological characteristics, it is obvious that I m a girl not because I think I m a girl.  why a person is called a gay, no one knows whatever is going on, in your mind but one can see your actions, in our society there are prescribed rules and standards, if u are following rules prescribed for a boy then u’ll be called a boy otherwise u’ll be kicked off  from the bracket. And also if a boy inclined towards the same sex that doesn’t mean he is gay and this inclination would not be his orientation but this inclination would be called sexual preference, which means to whom u prefer.

however If a boy has feminine appearance or interest then the question is why he is doing that, obviously he has something in his mind which is reflecting through his actions. At the same time such an orientation does not mean that this person is actually the one he seems.

According to some medical professionals, sexual orientation involves complex mixture of biology, psychology, and environmental factors. It can be a genetic, hormonal problem that may play a big role. And when these exceptional situations seem visible, it shows that sexual orientation whatever it causes is not simply chosen. And when we go through this then my understanding becomes true.

On the other hand sexual harassment is a different thing, it has nothing to do with the sexual orientation u possess.  This concept is a behavior, unwelcoming sexual attention, intimidation, coercion and bullying, it is just about making the other person offensive, make him or her feeling humiliation. It is not related to sexual orientation, the driver behind sexual harassment is ones mental negativity, sexual orientation is a neutral term, and it is up to you how u take it either negative or positive. But sexual harassment is pure negative term; a person will never harass his friend.

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Friday, March 18, 2011

Sexual dysfunction men treatment

Sexual dysfunction in men are common but most of the people avoid to talk about  that disorder.sexual disorder is one of the severe and concerning disorder.Sexual dysfunction includes all these premature ejaculation, erection problems, erectile dysfunction, an orgasm, loss of interest in sex impotence, inability to obtain sustain erection.

So if a men suffering from sexual disorder may have any one of the above problems.Sexual dysfunction can also defined as a problem during any phase of the sexual response cycle that prevents the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity.

Sexual dysfunction in men can treated with both physical or psychological methods.firstly the most important thing is that to diagnose the sexual problem is due to physical problem or psychological problem. Several tests can be used to evaluate the causes and extent of male sexual problems.Following are some tests which evaluate the causes of sexual dysfunction


  • Blood tests (These tests are done to evaluate hormone levels)
  • Vascular assessment(his involves an evaluation of the blood flow to the penis. A blockage in a blood vessel supplying blood to the penis may be contributing to erectile dysfunction.)
  • Sensory testing (Particularly useful in evaluating the effects of diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage), sensory testing measures the strength of nerve impulses in a particular area of the body.)
  • Octurnal penile tumescence and rigidity testing(This test is used to monitor erections that occur naturally during sleep)

Psychological treatment:

  • Lifestyle changes such avoiding smoking, drug or alcohol abuse can also help in treatment.
  • Psychological therapy(Therapy by an expert counselor can help a person address feelings of anxiety, fear or guilt that may have an impact on sexual function.)
  • Information(Information about sex, and sexual behaviors and responses may help a man overcome his anxieties about sexual function. Open dialogue with your partner about your needs and concerns also helps to overcome many barriers to a healthy sex life)
  • Marriage counseling sessions are recommended .

Physical treatment:

  • Medications(re known medications, such as sildenafil (Viagra), varderafil (Levitra), or tadalafil (Cialis) may help improve sexual function in men by increasing blood flow to the penis.)
  • Hormones(Men with low levels of testosterone may benefit from hormone injections. The use of a testosterone patch applied to the scrotum or other parts of the body has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to help increase testosterone levels to a normal range. Testosterone replacement by pills and implantable pellets also is being evaluated. )
  • Mechanical support(supports  such as vacuum devices and penile implants may help men with erectile dysfunction. )
  • Self-injection of medications directly into the penis
  • Vascular surgery to correct blood vessel problems
  • Inflatable penile implants.

Sexual dysfunction women treatment

If a women suffering from sexual dysfunction or disorder so she needs medical concern as well as emotional concern.The combination of these two things can play a vital role in treatment of sexual disorders. For this purpose the person suffering from this can also consult a doctor as well as sexologist.

In most of  the case of sexual problems, it is important to find somebody who knows a lot about these problems, e.g., a sexologist.A sexologist is a psychologist who is specialized in the treatment of sexual problems.Through the general practitioner you can ask for a referral to a sexologist. For physical causes of sexual problems it is always important to involve a gynecologist or a urologist in the treatment.

There is a specific medical solution — using vaginal estrogen therapy, for example, or switching from one antidepressant medication to another.sexual disorders can also treated with the behavioral treatments such as couples therapy and stress management.

These things are needed to address the cause of female sexual dysfunction.so basically there are two basic methods of treating sexual disorders i.e.medical treatment  and non medical treatment.non medical treatment includes behavioral treatments .These are some non medical (behavioral Treatments) which help in treating sexual disorders.

Behavioural treatments:

victim can improve her  sexual health by enhancing communication with her partner and making healthy lifestyle choices.
  1. Try to make healthy lifestyle by avoiding excessive alcohol. Drinking too much will blunt your sexual responsiveness.Also, stop smoking and start exercising. Cigarette smoking restricts blood flow throughout your body, and less blood reaching your sexual organs means decreased sexual arousal and orgasmic response.Finally, don't forget to make time for leisure and relaxation. Learning to relax amid the stresses of your daily life can enhance your ability to focus on the sexual experience and attain better arousal and orgasm
  2. Most of the couples never talk about sex, but open and honest communication with your partner can make a world of difference in your sexual satisfaction.Even if you're not used to communicating about your likes and dislikes, learning to do so and providing feedback in a nonthreatening manner can set the stage for greater sexual intimacy.
  3. Inability to form Relationship Intimacy should be not exist.
  4. Talk with a sexologist or therapist. Therapy often includes education about how to optimize your body's sexual response, ways to enhance intimacy with your partner, and recommendations for reading materials or couples exercises. With a therapist's help, you may gain a better understanding of your sexual identity, beliefs and attitudes
Medical treatments:
There are also various medical treatments which can help in treating sexual disorders.Treating female sexual dysfunction tied to an underlying medical condition might include
  1. Estrogen therapy(maintain estrogen therapy — in the form of a vaginal ring, cream or tablet — can enhance sexual function in a number of ways, including improving vaginal tone and elasticity, increasing vaginal blood flow, enhancing lubrication, and having a positive effect on brain function and mood factors that impact sexual response.)
  2. Treating thyroid problems or other hormonal conditions.
  3. Treatment of anxiety.
  4. Adjusting or replacing  medications that have sexual side effects
  5. Androgen therapy (it include male hormone testosterone but also present in women as well as in men although testosterone occurs in much lower amounts in a woman. Androgen therapy for sexual dysfunction is controversial. Some studies show a benefit for women who have low testosterone levels and develop sexual dysfunction; other studies show little or no benefit)
  6. Tibolone (Tibolone is a synthetic steroid drug used for the cure of postmenopausal osteoporosis In one randomized trial, postmenopausal women taking the drug experienced an improvement in overall sexual function and a reduction in personal distress compared with postmenopausal women taking estrogen, but the effect was small)

Male sexual enhancement pills

In this era the medical science has made it possible to enhance the sexual response.If a persaon has lost his sexual response so should consult to a doctor.There are so many different types of male sexual  enhancement methods .This makes it extremely difficult to choose which kind of method so for this aspect its better to ask to the doctor.

Exercise and stretching techniques are among the most popular means for male sexual  enhancement. These include Kegel exercise and jelqing, both of which are designed to exercise the pelvic floor muscles. Surgery is another option for male sexual enhancement.

This is expensive and not affordable for every one.There are also lots of pills which enhance the sexual activity in males.most of the pills consist natural/bio ingredients such as herbs or natural herb extracts, roots, botanic ingredients, and protein amino acids which are not harmful some are also contain zinc.  following are the names and functions of these pills.

  • Black Diamond (Black Diamond is capsule for man high-tech products that sex dysfunction developed, through the medical research for many years.it causes great effect on impotence, prospermia, sex let down, shortness of penis, hypogenesis of genitals, kidney weakness and penis atrophy of the old.It also improves the urgency of urination, prostatitis, and prostatic hyperplasia. it also caused pleasure  enhanced while the sex time is as long as 180 minutes.The penis will erect in 15 minutes after taken the capsule
  • Extenze(It is a herbal Sex Pill for Men.It Enlarge penis and cause hard erection.It improves sex lift and penile sensitivity and make erection last longer.It makes an erection easier and more reliable and enhance desire, power, pleasure and performance.
  • Magna-RX Sex Capsule(These pills enhance energy and produce blood it enhance the kidney function due to which the problem like impotence and the early ejaculation become solve.It increases the size of penis and  postpones the time of ejaculation.It also reduce the problems like penis shrinking and shortening, early ejaculation, scarce sexual needs.
  • Vegetal Vigra(it causes quick ejection and strong sexual desire it also causes sexual arousal last longer.Maintain the sexual functions of the human body.
  • Gerborn(It maintain the level of the human body hormones.It causes level expansion corpus cavernosum.It also causes sexual pleasure and reduce sexual fatigue.
  • Vigour Sex Tablet(this tablet erect the penis and improve sexual intercourse quality it reduce sexual fatigue.Remove premature ejaculation, activate kidney function and increase secretion of testicle cells.It prevent from disease like prostrate.

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Female sexual enhancement pills

Now medical science has made it possible to enhance the sexual response.If a person has lost his sexual response so should consult to a doctor.There are so many different types of female sexual  enhancement methods .This makes it extremely difficult to choose which kind of method so for this aspect its better to ask to the doctor.

Those women who are suffering from decreased libido has to used some sexual enhancement pills.A decrease in libido can be caused from everyday stresses of life, your diet or just being extra busy with day to day tasks. Even there are many women who have never even experienced an orgasm so they must  take these pills.

These pills help in regaining  youthful sexual response.Through these pills you can take control  your body and combat the hormonal, emotional and physiological changes that are causing a low female libido.These pills reduce vaginal dryness and inadequate blood supply to her sexual organs.There are the names of some pills and also their functions are mention here:

  • HerSolution Pills(it is made from herbal ingredients and it is clinically-tested.It improves  woman's sexuality and boosting the libido.It increases libido and craving for sex.It causes excitement during foreplay.It also enhance blood circulation and engorgement of clitoris and also causes sensation during sex and faster arousal.It enhances fertility through strengthening and oxygenation of the reproductive system.It makes the sex more enjoyable.
  • Provestra(These pills are made up of herbal ingredients.These pills can deal with the serious problems like  decrease in libido, inability to achieve orgasm and unsatisfying sexual relations.It increases libido and revived interest in sex it also increases fertility through toning and strengthening of the reproductive system.It maintain blood flow of body.
  • Viagra(These pills solving the problem of lubrication in women.These pills also increases the blood flow to the genitals.Which causes desire and arousal.It also increases pelvic blood flow.
  • Cerniplex(Cerniplex is a non-hormonal, non-pharmaceutical, all natural tablets.They consist of herbal ingredients.It causes vaginal moisture  and increases libido and desire.It also maintain blood flow of the body.

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