Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Athetosis Treatment

Athetosis is defined as a condition characterized by involuntary slow movements of the fingers, hands, toes and feet and generally caused by a brain injury. Following are the symptoms of athetosis in early childhood.
  • Early feeling difficulties
  • Poor muscle control
  • Delayed development
  • Muscle spasms
  • Lack of coordination
Athetosis can be classified it to these areas according to the parts of the body it acts.
  • Quadriplegia (all four limbs are involved, can also affect the muscles of the face and mouth).
  • Diplegia (all four limbs are involved, but legs more so than arms).
  • Hemiplegia (partial or one side of the body is involved).
  • Paraplegia (both legs, but neither of the arms, are involved).
Treatment is possible in this condition following are the treatment options;

The Gross Motor Function Measure
This is a kind of instrument and developed to measure the gross motor function of children suffering from cerebral palsy. Conduct the GMFM-88 may take about 45 to 60 minutes. The PEDI and GMFMare two evaluations  that support each other when trying to achieve a complete picture in evaluating changes in the kid. The GMFM and the PEDI both are very beneficial and valuable in evaluating functional motor capabilities of children with athetosis. Both methods aim on different manners of functioning and build on basis of different sources of information.

Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory
It is an equipment, which is used for evaluating function in children having disability. The PEDI is an inquisition equipment used by someone comfortable with the kid and concentrates on movability and self care in daily life. The PEDI calculates both functional attainment and potential in three frames;
  • Self-care
  • Social function
  • Mobility
Selective Control Evaluation
This test evaluates selective joint control of individual joints, depend on the reasoning that control of joints is the basis of movement, and intentional movement is the basis of different functions.

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Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Appendicitis Treatment

Appendicitis is a disease in which the appendix becomes swollen and fills with pus. The appendix is a finger like pouch that projects out from the colon on the lower right side of the abdomen. This structure does not have any known vital purpose, but that doesn't mean it cannot cause any problem. Appendicitis causes pain that usually starts around the navel and then transfers to the right lower abdomen.

Appendicitis pain usually increases over a duration of 12 to 18 hours and finally becomes very severe. Anyone can suffer from appendicitis, but it most often affects the people between the ages of 10 and 30. The basic appendicitis treatment is the removal of the appendix by surgery.

These are the symptoms of appendicitis;
  • Feeling pain that starts around the navel and usually transfers to the right lower abdomen.
  • Pain that becomes intense over several hours.
  • Softness that occurs when patient apply pressure to the right lower abdomen.
  • Intense pain in the right lower abdomen that occurs when the area is pressed and then the pressure is promptly released.
Pain that enhances with cough, walk or make other movements like;
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low-grade fever
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal swelling
Appendicitis treatment usually consist of a surgery to remove the appendix. Other treatments may be essential depending on the situation.

Surgery to remove the appendixThis surgery is commonly known as appendectomy. This surgery can be performed as open surgery utilizing one abdominal aciurgy that's about 2 to 4 inches long or appendicitis surgery can also be done as a laparoscopic operation, which includes several small abdominal cuts. During a laparoscopic appendectomy, the doctor interjects special surgical tools and a camera into the abdomen in order to remove the appendix.

Generally, laparoscopic surgery allows the patient to recover faster. But laparoscopic surgery is not suitable for everyone. If the appendix become ruptured and infection has spread beyond the appendix, so the victim may require an open appendectomy. An open appendectomy allows the doctor to clean the abdominal cavity.

Home remedies after surgeryIf the appendix burst, it may take more time to recover. During this recovery time, the patient can take these steps to help the body in healing after surgery.

Avoid energetic activityIf the appendectomy was done laparoscopically, avoid energetic activities for the first three to five days after surgery. If the victim had an open appendectomy, avoid the energetic activities for the first 10 to 14 days after surgery. Consult to the doctor when to go back to the normal activities.

Support the abdomen when victim coughsPatient may feel abdominal pain when he coughs, laughs or make other movements. Take a pillow over the abdomen and apply pressure before these movements to support yourself.

Call the doctor if the pain medications are not helpingRemain in pain exert extra stress on the body and decreases the healing process. If the patient still feels pain, despite pain medications, should call the doctor.

Get up and movingStart gradually and increase the activity as you feel up to it.

Sleep when victim feel tiredAs the body heals, patient may find feel sleepier than usual. Take it easy and rest when you need.

Discuss returning to work with the doctorPatient can return to work when he feels up to it. Kids may be able to go back to school less than a week after surgery, though strenuous activity like  gym or sports, should be restricted for two to four weeks after surgery.

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Apraxia Treatment

Apraxia is a condition indicate by loss of the ability to perform activities. Apraxia is caused by brain damage due to head injury, brain tumor, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The injury affects the brain's capability to accurately signal instructions to the body. Forms of apraxia contain the inability to say words or make expression. Many conditions cause apraxia, and it can occur in people of all ages. An infant might be born with the condition. A fall or any accident that resulted in head injury could lead to apraxia.

There are many types of apraxia, and a victim could be diagnosed with one or more types of this condition at the same time. The types of apraxia are following:

Buccofacial or orofacial apraxiaBuccofacial or orofacial apraxia is the condition defined as the incapability of a person to follow through on commands including face and lip movement. These activities consist of coughing, whistling, licking the lips and winking. It is the most common type of apraxia.

Limb-kinetic apraxiaLimb-kinetic apraxia is a condition defined as the incapability to make accurate motion with a leg or arm.

Ideomotor apraxiaIdeomotor apraxia is a condition defined as the incapability to make the appropriate movement in response to a command to perform an activity like waving.

Constructional apraxiaConstructional apraxia is a condition defined as the incapability to draw, copy or make simple figures.

Ideational apraxiaIdeational apraxia is a condition defined as the incapability to do an activity that includes performing a chain of movements in a sequence. It is also known as conceptual apraxia.

Oculomotor apraxiaOculomotor apraxia describe as difficulty in moving the eyes.

Verbal apraxiaVerbal apraxia is defined as a condition involving difficulty in mouth and speech movements.

Treatment of apraxia includes different types of therapies such as physical therapy and speech therapy.

Physical therapyPhysical therapy also known as PT. It is a health concern profession which targets the physical treatment and management of this disease which helps people to reach their maximum capabilities. Physical therapy is often effective in treatment of apraxia.

Speech therapy
Speech-language pathologists use several methods to treat apraxia of speech, and no single method has been authorized to be the most effective. Therapy is different for individual and is designed to cure other language or speech problems that may happen together with apraxia. Every individual responds in another way to therapy, and few people will make more betterment than others. People having apraxia of speech normally need often and intensive therapy.

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Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Argyria Treatment

Argyria is a condition, which is caused by inaccurate exposure to chemical forms of the element  like silver, silver compounds and silver dust. The most severe symptom of argyria is that the skin becomes blue colored. Argyria may be found as local argyria or generalized argyria. In animals and humans, silver gatherer in the body over the time.

Constant intake of silver products can result in a gathering of silver and silver sulfide particles in the skin. These particles in the skin darken with contact to sunlight, causing blue or  gray color of the skin. Argyria is usually considered irrevocable. The most effective treatment of this is to avoid sun, but laser therapy has been used to cure it with sufficient results.

Symptoms of ArgyriaSkin becomes blue or bluish-grey colored

Discolouration of the gums that extends to skin of hands, forehead and nose, where the area exposed to the sun mostly.

Causes of Argyria
Following are the causes of argyria:
  • Silver factories’ workers that produce silver can also breathe in silver or its derivatives could develop argyria.
  • Using medication contains colloidal silver and silver salt over time may cause argyria.
  • Utilization of a home-made silver products may cause argyria.
Dental procedures, silver sutures used in abdominal surgery and silver dental fillings are also cause argyria.

Treatment of ArgyriaFollowing are the treatment options of argyria

Avoid certain medicationsAvoid taking excessive dosages of colloidal silver and silver salt products like diet supplement for arthritis, cancer, diabetes, herpetic infections and AIDS.

Laser surgeryLaser surgery is a procedure to cure argyria. It is an effective procedure used to eliminate skin discolouration.

Using sunscreensUsing sunscreens may be helpful in discolouration and darkening of the skin.

Protective wearProtective wear can be used to avoid occupational exposure to silver and its derivatives.

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Arteritis Treatment

Arteritis can be defined as an inflammation of the arteries which are the blood vessels that transfer oxygenated blood from the heart to the other parts of the body. Oxygenated blood transfer from heart through the main artery of the body, which is aorta. The aorta subdivides into many smaller arteries that transfer blood to all parts of the body which also includes the internal organs and brain. In arteritis some of these arteries become swell.

Even though any large or medium artery can be damaged by this, swelling mostly occurs in the arteries of the head, which are located in front of the ears and extend into the scalp. Mostly it damages the arteries in the head.

Arteritis commonly causes jaw pain, headaches and blurred vision. Stroke and blindness are the most serious difficult situations of arteritis, but they are less often. Urgent treatment with corticosteroid medications mostly relieves symptoms of arteritis and may prevent from loss of vision.

Treatment arteritis includes high doses of a corticosteroid drug like prednisone. Corticosteroids are the strong anti-inflammatory drugs which effect on those hormones produced by the adrenal glands. These drugs can efficiently relieve pain, but high doses can cause a chain of side-effects.

In this condition urgent treatment is required to avoid vision loss, for this reason doctor may start drugs even before confirmatory diagnosis with a biopsy. After the first month of the treatment, the doctor may slowly begin to lower the dosage until the patient reach the lowest dose of corticosteroids required to control inflammation as calculate by CRP and seed rate tests. Adults, who are taking treatment, are specifically at risk of side-effects because they're more sensitive for many conditions that also caused by corticosteroids. These contain:
  • Osteoporosis
  • High blood pressure
  • Muscle weakness
  • Glaucoma
  • Cataracts
Other expected side-effects of corticosteroid include:
  • Weight gain
  • Increased blood sugar levels, sometimes leading to diabetes
  • Thinning skin and increased bruising
  • Decreased function of your immune system, leading to delay healing
To obstruct the side-effects of corticosteroid treatment, doctor is likely to supervise the bone density and may advise vitamin D and calcium supplements or some other medications to prevent bone loss. Doctor is also likely to supervise the blood pressure of the patient and may suggest an exercise program and medication to regulate blood pressure. Most side-effects reduce when the corticosteroid treatment is terminated.

Emerging treatments
Scientists are trying to find therapies that act as well as corticosteroids with fewer side-effects. One drug under analysis is methotrexate, which is mostly used to treat many cancers and some inflammatory conditions which include rheumatoid arthritis.

Home remedies:

Eat a healthy diet
Eating well can help in prevent from many problems like high blood pressure, thinning bones and diabetes. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meats, whole grains and fish and take limited salt, sugar and alcohol. Be sure to get sufficient quantity of calcium and vitamin D.

Exercise regularly
Regular exercise like walking can prevent from loss, diabetes and high blood pressure. It also enhances the activity of heart and lungs. In addition, most people determine that exercise makes their mood good and especially sense of well-being. If you are not used to exercising, start it gradually.

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Monday, May 23, 2011

Asthma Treatment Options

Asthma is a general chronic inflammatory disease of the airways identified by irregular and recurring symptoms. If a person has asthma so his airways become narrow and swell. They secrete extra amount of mucus which makes breathing difficult.

The most frequent asthma signs and symptoms are wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. For few victims, asthma symptoms are a minor, but for others, they are a major problem that disturbs the daily activities. Asthma cannot be treated, but its signs and symptoms can be controlled. There are several causes of asthma including the following;
  • Airborne allergens like pollen, animal dander, mold, cockroaches and dust mites
  • Respiratory infections like the common cold
  • Physical activity
  • Cold air
  • Air pollutants and irritants like smoke
  • Certain medications like beta blockers, aspirin and other non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Strong emotions and stress
  • Sulfite's, preservatives added to some types of foods and beverages
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease a condition in which stomach acids back up into your throat
  • Menstrual cycle in some women
  • Allergic reactions to some foods like peanuts or shellfish
Asthma symptoms range from mild to intense and vary from a person to person. Victim may have minor symptoms and asthma attacks may be less often. The common symptoms of the asthma are;
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness or pain
  • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
  • An audible whistling or wheezing sound when exhaling
  • Bouts of coughing or wheezing that are worsened by a respiratory virus like a cold or the flu
Prevention and long-term control is the core to preventing asthma attacks. Treatment generally includes learning to identifies the triggers and taking steps to prevent them, and tracking the breathing to ensure the daily asthma medications are keeping symptoms under control.

The appropriate medications for the victim depands upon a number of things such as symptoms, age, asthma triggers to keep the asthma under control. Preventive, long-term control medications decrease the swelling in the airways that leads to symptoms. Quick-relief inhalers which are also known as bronchodilators promptly open swollen airways that restrict breathing. In few cases, medications to treat specific allergies are required.

Long-term control medications
In many cases, these medications required to be taken every day. Following are the types of long-term control medications.

Inhaled corticosteroids
These medications contain budesonide (Pulmicort Flexhaler), fluticasone (Flovent Diskus, Flovent HFA), mometasone (Asmanex), beclomethasone (Qvar), flunisolide (Aerobid) and others. They are the most usual prescribed type of long-term medication for asthma. Victim may require to use these medications for several days. Unsimilar to oral corticosteroids, these corticosteroid medications have a comparatively low risk of side-effects and are usually safe for long-term use.

Leukotriene modifiers
These are oral medications which contain zafirlukast (Accolate), montelukast (Singulair) and zileuton (Zyflo, Zyflo CR). They help avoid asthma symptoms for up to 24 hours. In infrequent cases, these drugs have been linked to psychological reactions like aggression, agitation, depression, hallucinations and suicidal thinking. Promptly consult to a doctor for any unusual reactions.

Long-acting beta agonist
They are inhaled medications which include formoterol (Foradil Aerolizer) and salmeterol (Serevent Diskus). Long-acting beta agonist open the airways and decrease swelling.

Combination inhalers
Like salmeterol (Advair Diskus), fluticasone and budesonide and formoterol (Symbicort). These drugs contain LABA along with a corticosteroid. Like other LABA drugs, these drugs may enhance the risk of having an intense asthma attack.

Theophylline is a daily pill that helps in keeping the airways open. Theophylline contain Elixophyllin, Theo-24 and others relaxes the muscles surround to the airways to make breathing easier.

Quick-relief medications

Quick-relief medications are also known as rescue medications. These are used as required for rapid, short-term symptom relief during an asthma attack.  These are the types of quick-relief medications:

Short-acting beta Agonist
These inhaled, prompt-relief bronchodilators can immidiate ease symptoms during an asthma attack. They include Ventolin HFA, others), albuterol (ProAir HFA), levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA) and pirbuterol (Maxair Autohaler). These medications work within minutes, and effects for last several hours.

Ipratropium (Atrovent)
Doctor might prescribe this inhaled medication for immediate relief of the symptoms. Like any other bronchodilators, ipratropium comforts the airways, making it easier to breathe. Ipratropium is commonly used for emphysema and chronic bronchitis, but it is also sometimes used to treat asthma attack.

Oral and intravenous corticosteroids
These drugs comfort airway swelling caused by intense asthma. Examples are methylprednisolone and prednisone. They can cause serious side-effects when used in long-term, so they are used only on a short-term basis.

Treatment for allergy-induced asthma

If the asthma is worsened by allergies, patient may benefit from allergy treatment as well. Allergy treatments consist of:

Allergy shots (immunotherapy)
They are in the form of injections. Immunotherapy injections are usually given once in a week for a few months. Over time, they slowly decrease the immune system reaction to particular allergens.

Omalizumab (Xolair)
This medication is particularly for those people who have allergies and intense asthma. It works by altering the immune system. Omalizumab is used by injection.

Allergy medications
These consist of oral and nasal spray antihistamines and decongestants as well as cromolyn, corticosteroid and ipratropium nasal sprays.

Bronchial thermoplasty
This treatment is used for the treatment of intense asthma that does not improve with inhaled corticosteroids or other asthma medications. Bronchial thermoplasty heats the airways in the lungs from inside with an electrode, decreasing the smooth muscle inside the airways. This decrease the capability of the airways to tighten, making breathing comfortable and may decrease asthma attacks.

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Sunday, May 22, 2011

Anemia Treatment

Anemia is defined as a condition in which there is no sufficient healthy red blood cells to carry enough oxygen to the tissues. Person suffering from anemia may feel exhausted. There are many types of anemia, every type has its own cause. Anemia can be temporary or long-term, and it may be mild as well as severe.  Treatments for anemia include supplements and other different medical procedures. Victim may be able to prevent some types of anemia by eating a healthy, nutritious diet.

Treatment options of anemia depends on the type and cause and severity of the disease.

Iron deficiency anemiaThis is a kind of anemia and this kind of anemia is treated with some changes in diet and add iron supplements in diet. If the fundamental cause of iron deficiency is the blood loss apart from menstruation the area of the bleeding must be diagnose and stopped. For this surgery may be required.

Vitamin deficiency anemiasThis is a kind of anemia also known as folic acid deficiency anemia. This kind of anemia is treated with folic acid supplements. If the digestive system of the victim has trouble in absorbing vitamin B-12 from the food, doctor may recommend vitamin B-12 injections.

Anemia of chronic diseaseThis is also another type of anemia, but there's no definite treatment for this type of anemia. Doctors concentrate on treating the fundamental disease. If symptoms turn severe, a blood transfusion or injections of synthetic erythropoietin, a hormone naturally secreted by the kidneys, may help in stimulating red blood cell generation and also comfort fatigue.

Aplastic anemiaThis is another type of anemia and treatment for this anemia usually contains blood transfusions to enhance levels of red blood cells. Victim may need a bone marrow transplant if the bone marrow is infected and unable to make healthy blood cells.

Anemias associated with bone marrow diseaseThis type of anemias are associated with bone marrow. Treatment of these anemias can range from usual medication to chemotherapy to bone marrow transplantation.

Hemolytic anemiasThese are the type of anemia and treatment of the anemias includes preventing from suspected medications, treating related infections and taking drugs that control the immune system, which may be attacking the red blood cells. Short courses of treatment having steroids or immune suppressant drugs can help and restrain the immune system's attack on the red blood cells. Rely upon the severity of anemia, plasmapheresis, which is a type of blood-filtering procedure or a blood transfusion may be essential.

Sickle cell anemiaSickle cell anemia is a kind of anemia. Treatment for this type anemia may involve the management of oxygen, pain-killing drugs, and oral and intravenous fluids to decrease pain and avoid complications.

Doctors may also suggest folic acid supplements, blood transfusions, and antibiotics. In some circumstances bone marrow transplant may be an effective treatment. A cancer drug named hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea) also used in the treatment of sickle cell anemia.

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Alzheimer Treatment

Alzheimer disease is a condition which causes brain difficulties that continuously get worse. It is the most common reason of dementia a bundle  of brain disorders which originate continuous loss of memory and social skills. In Alzheimer's disease, brain cells decay and die, causing a regular  in failure memory and mental activity.


Recent Alzheimer's drugs can affect for a time with memory symptoms and other psychological changes. There are two types of drugs that are usually used to treat psychological symptoms;

Cholinesterase inhibitors
These drugs act by enhancing levels of a cell-to-cell connection chemical depleted in the brain by Alzheimer's disease. Usually prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors contain galantamine (Razadyne), donepezil (Aricept) and rivastigmine (Exelon). The side- effects of these drugs include nausea, diarrhea and vomiting.

Memantine (Namenda)
This drug acts in other brain cell communication network. It is occasionally used in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor. The most common side-effect of this drug is dizziness.

Creating a safe and supportive environment
For Alzheimer's patient it is necessary to adapt safe and supportive live style it is a substantial part of any treatment plan. You can take support from these steps in order to treat Alzheimer' disease;
  • Take off excess furniture, clutter and throw rugs.
  • Fix sturdy handrails on stairways and in bathrooms.
  • Make sure that shoes and slippers are comfortable and have good grip.
  • Decrease the number of mirrors. People having Alzheimer's may find images in mirrors frightful.
Exercising daily is important for everybody's health  and for those having Alzheimer's are no exception. Exercises like a daily 30-minute walk can help in improving the mood and keep up the health of joints, muscles and the heart. Exercise can also help in restful sleep and prevent constipation.

People having Alzheimer's who get difficulty in walking may still be able to use a stationery vehicle. Patients can find exercise programs on TV or on DVDs.

People having Alzheimer's may not be able to remember to eat, lose attraction in preparing meals or not eat healthy foods. They may also not able to remember to drink enough, which causes dehydration and constipation.

High-calorie, healthy shakes and smoothies
Victim can take supplement like milkshakes with protein powders, which is easily available at drugstores and grocery stores or can also use blender to make mix the favorite ingredients.

Water, juice and other healthy beverages
Make sure that a person having Alzheimer's drinks minimum several full glasses of liquid daily. Prevent beverages with caffeine, which can enhance restlessness, increase urination and disturb the sleep. Many nutritional supplements are selling as "medical foods" particularly to treat Alzheimer's disease. The Food and Drug Administration, which is known as FDA does not approve these supplements as medical foods.

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Albinism Treatment

Albinism is a genetic disorder and defined as a group of genetic disorders, causes small or no production of the pigment named melanin. The type and the quantity of melanin produces in the body decides the color of the skin, eyes and hairs. Usually the people suffering from albinism are hypersensitive to sun exposure and they are at high risk of developing skin cancer.

Melanin also plays a vital role in the development of optical nerves. All types of albinism create problems with the development and power of the eyes. Even though there's no remedy for albinism, people with the albinism can take actions to improve vision and prevent them from much sun exposure.

Treatment options

The aim of the treatment is to relieve symptoms. Treatment counts on the type of the disorder.
Treatment includes defending the skin and eyes from the sun:
  • Decrease sunburn risk by preventing the sun, using sunscreen, and warping up completely with clothes when exposed to the sun.
  • Sunscreen should have a high sun protection factor (SPF).
  • Sunglasses (UV protected) may give relieve from light sensitivity.
Glasses are usually advised to cure eye sight problems and eye position. Eye muscle surgery is recommended sometime to cure abnormal eye movement, which is known as nystagmus.

Home remedies

Use low vision aids
Like hand-held magnifying glass, a monocular or a magnifier that connects to spectacles .

Apply sunscreensIn this condition the victim should use a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30 that protects against both UVA and UVB light.

Avoid high-risk sun exposure
The victim in this condition should avoid sun exposure such as being outside in the middle of the day, at high altitudes and on sunny days with thin cloud cover.

Wear protective clothingVictim in this condition should be cover properly whenever go outside the home including long-sleeved shirts, long pants and broad-rimmed hats.

Protect your eyesIn this condition the victim should use UV-blocking dark spectacles.

SurgeryEven though surgery is the rarely part of treatment for albinism, Doctor may recommend surgery on optical muscles that reduce nystagmus. Surgery to correct strabismus may make the condition less observable, but it will not improve vision sent percent.

Doctor will also carry on an annual assessment of  the child's skin to screen for skin cancer or injuries that can lead to cancer. Adults with albinism require annual eye and skin exams throughout their whole live.

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Saturday, May 21, 2011

Alopecia Treatment

Alopecia is a condition in which victim suffers from hair loss. HairLoss can  begin with some uncommon hairs in the sink or in a comb. Subsequently, it can progress to a bare scalp. Baldness simply defined as too much  hair loss from the scalp and may be the result of inheritance, different drugs or an underlying medical condition. Men, women and even children may suffer from this.

Baldness whether permanent or temporary do not have any cure. But some hair loss treatments are accessible to help in promoting hair enhancement or hide hair loss. In few types of alopecia, hair may continue growth without any treatment.


The efficiency of drugs used to cure alopecia counts on the cause of hair loss, volume of the loss and individual response. Usually, treatment is less productive for more large-scale cases of hair loss.

These are the types of drugs for the treatment of alopecia and are authorized by the Food and Drug Administration contain;

Minoxidil (Rogaine)
This is over-the-counter drug is authorized for the treatment of alopecia areata and rogenetic alopecia. Minoxidil is a fluid or foam that can rub into the scalp two times daily to grow hair and to avoid further loss. Some people get some hair regrowth or a decrease rate of hair loss or both. Minoxidil is available in a 5 percent solution and also in 2 percent solution.

New hair arising from minoxidil use may be threadlike and shorter than the previous hair. But there can be sufficient hair growth for some people to hide their bald spots and have the new hair mix with the dwelling hair. New hair terminates growing soon after the termination of minoxidil use. It usually takes 12 weeks for new hair to begin growing. Side-effects include irritation of the scalp.

Finasteride (Propecia)

This is a prescribed drug to treat male-pattern baldness. This drug has taken daily in pill form. Most men using finasteride experience diminishing in hair loss, and some may  get some new hair growth. Beneficial results may take few months. Finasteride acts by blocking the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone commonly known as DHT, which is a hormone that reduces the size of hair follicles and is a substantial factor in male hair loss. Side-effects of finasteride contain decreased sex drive and sexual function.

Finasteride is not authorized for women use

Actually it poses substantial danger to women of reproductive age. If there is a pregnant woman, does not even handle crushed or broken finasteride tablets because consumption of the drug may cause severe birth disorders in male fetuses.


This drug usually takes through injections. Injections of cortisone into the scalp can cure alopecia areata. Treatment is mostly repeated monthly. Doctors may advise corticosteroid pills for excessive hair loss due to alopecia areata. New hair may be arises four weeks after the injection. Creams and ointments can also be used, but they may be less productive than injections.

Anthralin (Dritho-Scalp)

This drug is available in the form of a cream or also in the form of an ointment, anthralin is a synthetic, tarry substance which victim can apply on to the scalp daily and wash off. It is commonly used to treat psoriasis, but doctors can prescribe this to treat other skin conditions as well. Anthralin may promote new hair growth in the cases of alopecia areata. It usually takes up to 12 weeks for new hair to arise.


The aim of the surgery is to use the existing hair efficiently to cover lost ground.

Hair transplant

The techniques like minigrafts, punch grafts, micrografts, and strip grafts are accessible to cure androgenetic alopecia when other conventional procedures have failed. Throughout these techniques, a dermatologist takes small plugs of skin, each holding one to a few hairs, from the back of the scalp. The plugs are then fixed into the bald sections. Many transplant sittings may be required, as inherited hair loss improves with time.

Scalp reduction

It means decreasing the area of bald skin on the head. Scalp and the top part of the head may seem to have appropriate fix. But the skin can become lose and flexible for some of it to be surgically erased. After hairless scalp is erased, the gap is closed with hair-covered scalp.

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Friday, May 20, 2011

Aneurysm Treatment

The meaning aneurysm is dilatation. It is a localized, blood-filled balloon in the wall of a blood vessel. Aneurysms can usually occur in arteries at the base of the brain and an aortic aneurysm occurs in the main artery which carry blood from the left ventricle of the heart. A brain aneurysm can rupture, which causes bleeding into the brain known as hemorrhagic stroke.

Mostly a ruptured brain aneurysm occurs in the area between the brain and the thin tissues which covers the brain. This kind of hemorrhagic stroke is commonly known as subarachnoid hemorrhage. A ruptured aneurysm is usually life-threatening and needs urgent medical treatment. Most brain aneurysms, although don't rupture only causes health problems or cause different symptoms. These aneurysms are mostly diagnosed during tests for other conditions. Treatment of an unruptured brain aneurysm may be significant in some cases and may prevent from rupture in the future.

Surgical procedures

There are two general surgical procedure for treating a ruptured brain aneurysm.

Surgical clipping
Surgical clipping is a procedure to block out an aneurysm. Doctor take off a section of  the skull to access the aneurysm and diagnose the blood vessel that nourishes the aneurysm. Then, he or she places a tiny metal clip on the cape of the aneurysm to obstruct the blood flow to it.

Endovascular coiling
Endovascular coiling is a less invasive procedure as compare to surgical clipping. The doctors introduce a hollow plastic tube called catheter into an artery, normally in the groin, and threads it through the body to the aneurysm. Victim then uses a guide wire to move a soft platinum wire by the catheter and into the aneurysm. The wire coils up inside the aneurysm, disturbs the blood flow and forces blood to clot. 

This clotting effectively seals off the aneurysm. Both of these procedures have certain risks, specifically bleeding in the brain or loss of blood pressure to the brain. The endovascular coil is less invasive and may be primarily safer, but it also has a risk of consecutive re-bleeding, and an additional procedure may be required. The neurosurgeon will make a suggestion depend up on the area of the brain aneurysm.

Other treatment options

The other treatment options for ruptured brain aneurysms are concentrate from relieving symptoms and controlling complications.

Analgesic pain reliever
Analgesic pain reliever is used to reduce pain like acetaminophen (Tylenol, others).

Calcium channel blockers
Calcium channel blockers obstruct calcium from access in the cells of the blood vessel walls. These drugs may lessen vasospasm, the narrowing and  erratic widening of blood vessels that may be a difficulty of a ruptured aneurysm. One of these drugs, nimodipine has been shown to decrease the risk of adjourned brain injury due to insufficient blood pressure after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Interventions to prevent stroke

They include intravenous injections of a drug named a vasopressor, which promotes blood pressure to overwhelmed the resistance of narrowed blood vessels. A substitute intervention to avoid stroke is angioplasty. In this process, doctor uses a catheter to blow up a tiny balloon that spreads a narrowed blood vessel in the brain. A catheter may also be used to deliver a drug named vasodilator to the brain, which causes blood vessels to dilate.

Anti-seizure medications

These meditations may be used to treat a ruptured aneurysm. These drugs include phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek, others), levetiracetam (Keppra) and valproic acid (Depakene).

Ventricular catheters and shunt surgery

These can reduce pressure on the brain from overmuch cerebrospinal fluid (hydrocephalus) correlated with a ruptured aneurysm. A catheter might fix in the spaces filled with liquid inside the brain (ventricles) to waste the excess liquid into an external bag. Few times, it may then be essential to fix a shunt system which contains a flexible silicone rubber tube called shunt and a valve that forms a drainage channel starting in the brain and ending in the abdominal cavity.

Treating un-ruptured brain aneurysms

Surgical procedures like surgical clipping and endovascular coiling can be used to treat unruptured brain aneurysm by sealing off the aneurysms and help in preventing from future rupture. Although the known risks of the procedures may compensate the potential benefit.
A neurologist can help the victim in deciding whether the treatment is appropriate. Factors that they would think in making a suggestion include;
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Wednesday, May 18, 2011

What is Safe Sexs?

The term “safe sexs” is generally used for the sexual activity in which precautionary methods are being used for the safety purpose, now question may raise into our mind that, from which thing we need protection? So the answer is these kind of sexual activities has some negative impact  on human life such as some harmful diseases are being transmitted through these kind of sexual acts, whereas sexs is a basic need of a human life so some precautionary methods are being used against these kind of  diseases such as HIV positive.

However these precautionary methods do not completely reduce the risk factor but somehow decreases it to some extent.

Safe Sex With Corn brought to you by PornHub

The awareness about the safe sexs is being spread all over the world through sexs education including Pakistan and India. Some sexsual practices which are generally being used to avoid any kind of infection are as follows:
Masturbation: This practice is used without involving another partner into it. People male and female both go for it whenever they feel urge for sexs. Nowadays “cyber sexs” and “phone sexs” is common among the people because it is safer than any other methods, they fulfill their sexsual desire while being physically away from each other.

Non Penetration: In this method both the partners comes under physical contact and gives pleasure to each other through kissing, sucking, rubbing and stroking but they do not go for intercourse in order to avoid pregnancy and STIs.

Barrier Protection: It includes some barriers to protect STIs and pregnancy such as condoms, latex, female condoms etc.

All of these methods help mankind to adopt safer way instead of using unsafe sexual practices which can lead to HIV and AIDS. It is now our duty to spread awareness about these safe sexs methods so that people may not destroy their lives for pleasure. Many people are playing vital role inn spreading knowledge about safe sexs. This will definitely serve the humanity.

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Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Cancer Death Symptoms

Depending upon the specific type of cancer the signs of upcoming death vary. Generally they have similarity in many cases, unless the patient has multiple disorders and other complications. Observing one or more such symptoms does not necessarily mean that the person is on the verge of life and will soon say final good bye to his relatives.

Having some sort of information about these is highly essential to avoid further health deterioration. Besides, it can invoke to manage cancer more carefully while one starts having any of death signs after becoming a victim of cancer-the ruthless killer. Mainly at the last stage of the disease, these problems can occur to foretell the ultimate consequence-death:

False illusions, confusion, inability to recognize familiar people

Many affected people can lose senses, resulting in hallucinations and senseless beliefs. They are too confused about time and date. Some even talk to their relatives who passed away years ago, never realizing they are no more alive and certainly can’t have conversation with anyone. Similarly, the places that don’t exist in reality can be visualized by the patient. This is due to extremely disturbed psychological system which has resulted due to ongoing cancer that will take away the life of the person.

Anorexia, loss of appetite

This symptom is obvious in almost all types of cancers that have got a severe stage and will lead to the end of patient’s life. This aversion to food may be in the early stages but when it attains continuity and occurs to an extreme level, this signals that disease has now affected any vital part to a great extent. Since, nutrition is not supplied to the body, drastic weight loss and related complications will finally deprive the patient of this precious life.

No control over bowel and bladder excretion

When near death, many cancer patients completely lose control over their urine and stool excretion. Many of them spoil the bed they are without ever noticing. This system is disturbed especially in cancers of sexual and genital organs with abnormal changes in their daily removal habit and frequency. Usually, the urine is dark than normal in color.

Drowsiness and lethargic feeling

At last stage of cancer, many people have been found to experience sleepiness and too unresponsive of the surrounding factors or stimuli. They feel lethargic all the time; sleep more than they normally did in the past. They stay considerably less alert than they were in the initial stage of the disease. Sometimes, response is totally absent since the patient becomes speechless but is capable of hearing others voice and surrounding sounds. This disturbed speech and vocal ability is really a serious death sign.

Abnormal breathing sound

Many patients have a gurgling sound while they inhale or exhale air. This can be loud, irregular with unstable breathing that can get fast at times then slower than before.

Cold blue skin

Another death alert is the skin of the patient is cold when touched. It also lacks its pinkish color and vitality that it once was; now turning into pale blue tone. However, the affected individual is unaware of it, and may not feel this coldness. Perhaps, this lack of warmth is making the person drowsy, sleepy, lazy and lethargic. This is the very reason that causes a noticeable increase in sleep duration.

Introvert and unsocial

Many patients become less social than they normally were when they enter into the last stage of the disease. They are now inactive, unhappy and don’t feel like meeting with relatives, family or friends. They are cut-off with the society they live in and seem restless. The extreme disturbance and sadness makes them confined to their room.

The patients must be well treated in the initial stage of disease to avoid all these dangerous signals that ultimately put their life at an end.

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Sunday, May 15, 2011

AIDS Treatment

AIDS is an incurable, potentially deadly condition caused by the virus named human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This virus works by destroying the immune system, HIV interferes with the body's capability to act against the organisms that cause disease. The term AIDS is the acronym of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. AIDS is a sexually transmitted syndrome. It can also spread the use infected blood, or also spread from mother to child during pregnancy. AIDS is also spread through direct contact with a mucous membrane or it can also spread through blood, vaginal fluid, semen preseminal fluid, and breast milk.

There is no remedy for AIDS, but range of drugs can be used collectively to control the virus. Each of the group of anti-HIV drugs obstruct the virus in different approaches. It's most effective to combine at least three drugs from two different groups to prevent creating strains of HIV that are immune to single drugs. The groups of anti-HIV drugs include:

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)

NNRTIs break a protein required by HIV to replicates itself. Examples include etravirine (Intelence), efavirenz (Sustiva) and nevirapine (Viramune).

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

NRTIs are construction blocks that HIV requires to replicates of itself. Examples are Abacavir (Ziagen), and the collective drugs like emtricitabine and tenofovir (Truvada), and lamivudine and zidovudine (Combivir).

Protease inhibitors (PIs)

PIs break protease, which is another protein that HIV requires to replicates itself. Examples are atazanavir (Reyataz), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), darunavir (Prezista), and ritonavir (Norvir).

Entry or fusion inhibitors

These drugs obstruct HIV's access into CD4 cells. Examples are maraviroc (Selzentry) and enfuvirtide (Fuzeon).

Integrase inhibitors

Raltegravir (Isentress) acts by breaking integrase, which is a protein that HIV uses to put its genetic material into CD4 cells.

Multi drug Combination Products

Multi drug Combination Products gather drugs from more than one group into a single product. To act against virus strains from becoming resistant to particular antiretroviral drugs, doctors recommend that people having HIV take a combination of antiretroviral drugs commonly known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Produced by NIAID-supported analyzers.

HIV treatment plan may  include taking different pills at specific times every day for the rest of  the life. Side-effects are also present like;
  1. Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
  2. Abnormal heartbeats
  3. Shortness of breath
  4. Skin rash
  5. Weakened bones
  6. Bone death, particularly in the hip joints
Feedback to any treatment is judged by the viral load and CD4 counts of the victim. Viral load should be examined at the beginning  of treatment and then every three to four months while patient is undergoing therapy. CD4 counts should be observed every three to six months. HIV treatment should decrease the viral load of the victim to the point that it’s undetectable. That doesn’t mean that HIV has gone. It just means that the analysis  is not sensitive enough to find it. Victim can still transmit HIV to others when viral load of the victim is undetectable.

Treatment should begin if;
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Adenoma Treatment

An adenoma can be defined as a curable tumor that grows up from epithelial tissue. Adenomas can develop from many organs including the adrenal glands, colon, pituitary gland, thyroid, etc. Colon adenomas are commonly known as adenomatous polyps. Even though adenomas are not cancerous, but they have the capability to become cancerous. Most colorectal cancer maturates from adenomatous polyps.

Adenomas that transform into cancer are referred to as adenocarcinomas. Colon cancer screening assists identify and discard adenomas before they become severe. The bigger size adenomas have greater chance to become cancerous. For instance, if a colonoscopy were to discover an adenoma in the colon the size of a nickel, there'd be a 30-50% probability that it would become cancerous.

Adenomas are of three types which are tubular, tubulovillous, and villous. The most common are tubular and they have tube-like structure. Villous are the usually infrequent and have a sort of cockle, frilly structure. Tubulovillous are usually mix between the two and occur less commonly than tubular, but more commonly than villous.

Treatment options

When this tumor is discovered, the doctors discuss treatment options with the patient to decide the most suitable treatment plan based on the kind of tumor exist. Most adenoma tumors are inactive, and they do not secrete hormones. Although active adenoma tumors cause an excessive secretion of hormones like growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone.


Medication treatments may help by obstructing the excess hormones production and can shrink certain types of pituitary adenomas. Prolactin hormone secreting tumors are usually treated with cabergoline and bromocriptine. These medications decline prolactin production and usually reduce size of the tumor.

These medications are so effective. Growth hormone secreting tumors can be treated with two groups of medications. These medications are usually recommended when surgery has been ineffective in treating excess hormone secretion:

Somatostatin analog drugs decline growth hormone secretion and may decrease the size of the tumor.
Pegvisomant blocks the acts of excess growth hormone secretion on the body.


Surgery is the basic treatment recommendation for pituitary adenomas. The efficiency of surgery count on the type of the tumor, location of the tumor and size of the tumor.

Transphenoidal endoscopic tumor removal

In this procedure, the pituitary adenoma is discard through the nasal cavity with the help of a microscope and endoscope-assisted technique that results in no visible cut. This surgery was done through an external cut under the lip.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high energy rays to abolish pituitary tumors. Radiation therapy is usually recommended when these tumors persist or coming back after surgery and cause symptoms not cured by medications. It also may use if surgery is not possible.

Removal of colon adenoma

Doctors use these steps in removing of colon adenoma.


This procedure is used to treat colon adenoma. In this procedure a small colon polyps can be snared by the help of wire loop that cuts and cauterizes their stalks to prevent bleeding.

Endoscopic mucosal resection

In this procedure a salt water solution is injected under the polyp to ascend and detached it from the colon lining before a snare removes it. Endoscopic mucosal resection is mostly used on large polyps.


Colon polyps that are so large to snare or can't be reached safely are usually surgically removed. In most cases doctors use minimally invasive incisions, which results in the form of faster and less painful progress than conventional surgery.

Colon and rectum removal

If there is a rare hereditary polyp condition, like familial adenomatous polyposis, so doctors may recommend removing the whole colon and rectum by ileoanal anastamosis. In most cases, ileoanal anastomosis can be done laparoscopically.

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Cancer Death Rates by Country

The cancer statistics vary a great deal among men and women all over the world.  The reasons are many, such as body mechanism, lifestyle, different genetic make up for both and some specific risk factors like age, diet, family history and others. Below are given tables showing figures from all parts of the world, on a scale of 0 to 100.

By Lung cancer:

CountryDeath rate
Among malesFor females








England and Wales


Hong Kong

United States




North Ireland






New Zealand



















Korea Republic


Puerto Rico

Costa Rica






































































































The above figures are from 1986 to 1988. The source is WHO (World Health organization).

Conclusion: The table indicates that U.S is ranked at number 12 in cancer death in males and at number 4 in females.  There is higher mortality among males than female in that country. As far as Iceland is concerned, the statistics are the same for both the genders. Like U.S, Belgium too has the highest rate in males as compared to all other areas of the world.  Then comes Scotland, that has the second highest rate in males and highest of all in females.

Mexico, Central and South America are lucky enough to have this death rate almost zero or rare. In United States, there is a noticeable variation in mortality according to its geography. Males have highest death rate in Southern areas, whereas for the females, it is higher in west coast, Nevada, West Virginia, Kentucky, Maine, and Maryland.

For breast cancer:

CountryDeath rate
For females
England and Wales




North Ireland


New Zealand







Germany, Fed


United States












Germany, Dem









Puerto Rico

Costa Rica





Hong Kong






Korea Republic



















































These are figures of 1986 to 1988 by World health organization.

The table shows that breast cancer incidences and deaths are rare in Asia. While in Europe, it is higher than lung cancer, England and Wales has the highest rate of breast cancer deaths. Denmark, Scotland and Ireland come after that. United States comes at number 16 among all countries.

For all cancers

RankingCountryDeath rate (per 100,000 patients)





















Czech Republic

New Zealand

United States







United Kingdom
















Note: The figures are for the year 2000. Source: OCD health data-2004

AS you can see, Netherlands has the highest death rate and United Kingdom has the lowest of all, but this is true of all cancer types not specific. In later case, the statistics are varied.

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Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Hypothyroidism Treatment

Hypothyroidism is a condition of under active thyroid in which thyroid gland doesn't secrete sufficient important hormones. There are many disorders that result in hypothyroidism. These disorders may directly or indirectly include the thyroid gland. Although thyroid hormone influences the growth, development, and many cellular processes, insufficient thyroid hormone causes several disorders in the body.

Females, especially above 50, are more likely to have hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism disturbs the normal balance of chemical reactions in the body. Some times it causes symptoms in the early stages, but over time, untreated hypothyroidism can cause several health problems, like obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart problems.


Approved treatment for hypothyroidism includes the regular use of the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine (Levothroid, Synthroid, others). This drug taken orally and this restores sufficient hormone levels, and regulate the body hormonal level. After one to two weeks of the starting treatment, victim will observe that he is feeling less fatigued. The treatment also slowly lowers the cholesterol levels, which is raised by the disease and may reverse any weight gain. Treatment with levothyroxine is mostly lifelong, but because the dosage you need may change, your doctor is likely to check your TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) level every year.

Deciding proper dosage may take timeTo decide the appropriate dosage of levothyroxine at first, the doctor generally checks your level of TSH after two to three months. Extreme amounts of the hormone can cause side-effects like:
  • Increased appetite
  • Insomnia
  • Heart palpitations
  • Shakiness
If the victim has coronary artery disease or severe hypothyroidism, so doctor may start treatment with a smaller amount of medication and slowly increase the dosage. Progressive hormone replacement causes heart to adjust to the increase in metabolism. Levothyroxine instigates virtually no side-effects when used in the suitable dose and is relatively inexpensive.

Proper absorption of levothyroxine

Several medications, supplements and even some foods may affect the ability to absorb levothyroxine. Talk to the doctor if you eat large amounts of soy products or a high-fiber diet or you take other medications like:
  • Iron supplements
  • Cholestyramine
  • Aluminum hydroxide, which is found in some antacids
  • Calcium supplements
If any victim has sub clinical hypothyroidism, discuss the treatment with your doctor. For a comparatively mild increase in TSH, you probably will not benefit from thyroid hormone therapy, and treatment could even be harmful. On the contrary, for a higher TSH level, thyroid hormones may recover the cholesterol level, the pumping ability of the heart and body energy level.

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Monday, May 9, 2011

Cancer Incidence

Cancer is a global disease affecting people of all races, irrespective of their health condition, region and lifestyle. Many people born with genetic mutation, a known cause of cancer never develop any tumor throughout their life. On the other hand some do get this fatal problem despite having no apparent or potential symptoms and risk factors. This clearly indicates there are some areas left to be investigated deeply into, in order to resolve this mysterious nature of this medical disorder.

Worldwide statistics
Figures vary a great deal from one part of the world to another, so is the number at any given year. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) a department of World Health organization (WHO) gives its findings from time to time. Globocan also has many facts regarding the problem. These are stated here:
  • In 2008, there were 12.7 million new cases of cancer observed according to an estimate and these caused 7.6 million deaths worldwide.
  • The most common cancers are of the lung, breast and colorectal.
  • 1.61 million people were affected by lung cancer that is about 12.7% of the total patients.
  • 1.38 million individuals got breast cancer, both genders but mostly women. (10.9 % of all)
  • 1.23 million people suffered from colorectal cancer. This becomes 9.7% of all cancer cases registered the world over.
  • Lung, stomach and liver cancers are the most common causes of deaths all over the globe.
The report not only gave recent incidence rates but also predicted cases to be occur in the next two or three decades.
  • There will be almost 21.4 million new cases detected on annual basis by year 2030. These will lead to 13.2 million deaths in all parts of the world.
  • Each year 10.9 million people are diagnosed with cancer. Most of them, about 45 % are in Asia because of large size of population (by cancer institute UK). It states the rates in the form of a table given below. These are for the year 2002.

New cases diagnosed
Latin America & The Caribbean838,0008
Northern America1,570,50014
Developed countries5,016,10046
Developing countries5,827,50054
World(the total)10,862,500100

As the table indicates, Asia has the highest cancer incidences in the world. Since, it is densely populated than other continents especially its two countries China and India, there are ultimately more cases. Europe is after that, as the figures reveal. North America is ranked number three, followed by Latin America & the Caribbean, Africa and Oceania respectively.
  • There is fivefold difference in the incidences of males all over the world.
  • For females the rate difference is four-fold.
  • U.S, Hungary and New Zealand have highest occurrences of cancerous malignancies among men.
  • Niger, Congo and Gambia have the lowest tumor diseases of all types.
  • U.S, Israel and New Zealand have the highest incidence rates among females
  • Oman, Gambia and Tunisia have lowest rates of tumor in women.
  • United Kingdom is ranked 25th in the world in male and 8th in females.
Despite having ten times more health facilities, developed world is no exception and if not in all cancers, many of the countries there have the highest rate in specific type of cancers as compared to Africa, the poorest of all and (South) Asia the second backward region. The reasons are evident and discussed in detail through various forums. Many institutes are funding heavily to conduct researches on the new discoveries, treatment options as well as past, current and future statistics of this ruthless disease.

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Friday, May 6, 2011

HIV AIDS Treatment

The word #AIDS is the acronym of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is a contagious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus generally known as #HIV. There are two  different types of  HIV virus, which are  HIV-1 and HIV-2, both of which eventually cause AIDS. This disease damages the  immune system, HIV prohibits with the body's power to fight with the organisms that cause different diseases. HIV can be transmitted by sexual contact. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood, or from mother to child throughout pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. It may take many  years before HIV affects your immune system to the diagnosis that you have AIDS. Even in this modern era there is no remedy for HIV/AIDS, but there are few drugs that can dramatically slow the progressiveness of the disease. These drugs have  decreased AIDS deaths in many  advance countries. But HIV continues to abolish people in the regions like Africa, Haiti and some parts of Asia.

Treatment options of HIV / AIDS

  • Antiretroviral Drugs
There is no treatment for HIV/AIDS, but a range of drugs can be used in combination to control the virus. Each of the classes of antiretroviral drugs obstruct the virus in several ways. It's best to combine at least three drugs from two different classes to avoid creating strains of HIV that are immune to single drugs. The classes of antiretroviral drugs are arranged into five major drug categories which are as follow.

  • Reverse Transcriptase (RT)
Reverse transcriptase Inhibitors usually intervene with the acute step during the HIV lifecycle known as reverse transcription. At this step, the HIV enzyme RT changes HIV RNA to HIV DNA. There are two major kinds of RT inhibitors which are.

1. Nucleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitors
Nucleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitors are incorrect DNA building blocks. When these incorrect pieces are associated  into the HIV DNA (during the process when HIV RNA is changed to HIV DNA), the DNA chain cannot be consummated, thereby blocking HIV from multiplication  in a cell).

2. Non-nucleoside RT inhibitors

Non-nucleoside RT inhibitors bind to RT, destroying its ability to change the HIV RNA into HIV DNA.
  • Protease Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors intervene with the protease enzyme that HIV uses to build infectious viral particles.
  • Fusion/Entry Inhibitors
Fusion/Entry Inhibitors intervene with the virus' ability to combine with the cellular membrane, thereby obstructing entry into the host cell.
  • Integrase Inhibitors
Integrase Inhibitors block integrase, the enzyme HIV uses to combine the genetic material of the virus into its target host cell.
  • Multi drug Combination Products
Multi drug Combination Products accumulate drugs from more than one category into a distinct product. To fight with virus strains from becoming resistant to particular antiretroviral drugs, health care providers recommend that people suffer from HIV take a combination of antiretroviral drugs known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Developed by NIAID-supported analyzers.

HIV treatment plan may involve taking several pills at particular times every day for the rest of  the life. Side-effects can consist.
  • Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
  • Abnormal heartbeats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Skin rash
  • Weakened bones
  • Bone death, particularly in the hip joints
Feedback to any treatment is judged by the viral load and CD4 counts of the victim. Viral load should be examined at the beginning  of treatment and then every three to four months while patient is undergoing therapy. CD4 counts should be observed every three to six months. HIV treatment should decrease the viral load of the victim to the point that it's undetectable. That doesn't mean that HIV has gone. It just means that the analysis  is not sensitive enough to find it. Victim can still transmit HIV to others when viral load of the victim is undetectable.

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Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Cervical Cancer Death Statistics

The figures for the last decade as well as past fifty years or more are given with country name.

United States

It used to be a leading death cause for women in U.S. Over the past forty years, the rate of #Cervical Cancer has significantly declined. The major reason for this decrease is that more women now get Pap Tests that can detect pre-cancer stage of cervical cancer before it develops a tumor inside.
  • In 2007, this cancer led to 4,021 deaths among women all over United States.
  • 2.7 white women per 100,000 in the US 1996-2000
  • 5.9 African American women per 100,000 in the US 1996-2000
  • 2.9 Asian American and Pacific Islander women per 100,000 in the US 1996-2000
  • 2. American Indian and Alaska Native women per 100,000 in the US 1996-2000
  • 3.7 Hispanic Latino women per 100,000 in the US 1996-2000 (SEER Cancer Statistics Review, National Cancer Institute, 1975-2000)

United Kingdom

There were 957 deaths from cervical #cancer in the entire UK in 2008. The rate thus becomes 2.4 per 100,000 women and crude rate is 3.1 per 100,000. The table below shows the stats in all of its countries:

Crude rate per 100,000 population
Age-standardised rate (European) per 100,000 population
95% CI2.

Age factor: The highest number of deaths in women over 70 years of age. A small number of deaths about 7 per cent is reported to have occurred in women who are below the age of 35. The list given here makes it clearer to understand:

The graph indicates women age, number of deaths and rate.

England and Wales: The table gives separate stats for both the countries in United Kingdom:
  • In 2008, mortality rate that is 2.4 per 100,00 is about 70 % lower than it was thirty years back, that was 7.1 % per 100,000 women in 1979.
  • After mid 1920s until 1940s the rates are lower.
  • During 1998 to 2000, the rate decreased by approximately 80 % in women aged from 55 to 64 years. It dropped from 30 per 100,000 to 602 per 100,000.
Across the world-major countries
  • There are 273,000 deaths from cervical cancer each year. It is 9 % of all cancer deaths in women.
  • Mortality rates vary seventeen times in different regions of the world.
  • Cervical cancer is responsible for causing about 2.4 million deaths in females aged from 25 to 64, all over the globe.
  • 0.3 million of these deaths are in developed countries, whereas 2.4 million women in developing areas, such as Africa, South Asia and other parts.
Source-UK facts & figures: http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/cervix/mortality
  • 410 female deaths occurred w is 2 per 100,000  in Canada in 2004 (Canadian Cancer Statistics, National Cancer Institute of Canada, 2004)
The rates are per 100,000 women in year 2000.

Table showing states for worldwide cervical cancer deaths
Rate per 100,000 in major countries
2.4     Australia

4.7     Austria

1.9     Azerbaijan

7.4    Bulgaria

2.8    Canada

10.6  Chile

3.1   China

13.7  Colombia

10.6  Cuba

4.1    Denmark

1.3    Finland

3.5   France

4.2    Germany

2.2     Greece

7.7 Hungary

3.1 Israel

3.0  Japan

13.6  Mauritius

17.1  Mexico

2.2 Netherlands

3.9 New Zealand

3.3 Norway

7.8  Poland

4.8 Portugal

10.9 Romania

5.2 Russian Federation

5.4 Slovakia

5.6  Slovenia

2.7  Spain

2.9 Sweden

6.3 Turkmenistan

15.2  Venezuela

 Source: Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Prevalence Worldwide, GLOBOCAN, 2000 American Cancer Society
  • 2 women aged 20-74 per 100,000 population die of cervical cancer in Australia 2002 according to Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)