Sunday, June 30, 2013

Three Person IVF Procedure is to Prevent Mitochondrial Disease not to Fight with God

Genetic research is going on from Harvard, Pennsylvania to Oxford in UK. But Britain takes credit to offer first official approval of carrying out three person IVF trial on ground. Chief Medical Officer Dame Sally Davies explains the concept is purely a medical advancement in human evolution. It has nothing to do with our religion or God.
Photo Credit: HEFA
Sally says that every person stick to their religion. But under science, we need to prevent our generations from dangerous diseases such as Mitochondrial. It transfers from parents to children and alone in UK 10-20 kids die with it.

The era has changed and with it our resources to take such type of diseases and remove from our heritage lines. A patient Rachel Kean (with MELAS Syndrome) talks to BBC News that the procedure is service to humanity and will save 10 lives each year.

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Friday, June 28, 2013

Britain Government is Supporting One Man and Two Women Embryos to Make One Baby to Remove Genetic Disease Mitochondrial

Genetic engineering is in process worldwide but United States and Britain has been experimenting on advanced level. In their laboratories scientists are experimenting to produce a child by combing chromosomes of three men into one woman. Mitochondrial is a disease that cannot be cured and transfers from parent to children and goes on. One out of 6500 dies every year from it.

These modified embryos are inserted into woman ovary for fertility. It is first time to go in world and Britain government is supporting it officially. Many NGOs are opposing it as an intervention in natural process that can lead to engineered babies or designer babies.

Photo Credits: India Today
The IVF process is manipulated by combining genes from donor female, mother and father. According to India Today, Sally Davies (Chief Medical Officer) said that Britain scientists have overcomes the natural process that transfers disease genetically. And now we can stop it using DNA swapping.

On international ground, David King (Director of Human Genetics) opposed the idea and said that it is under development and experiments at this stage are dangerous. We should wait few more years to have more concise grounds and technologies.

Saturday, January 26, 2013

What Is Fever?

The normal temperature of the body is 37° C (98.6° F). When this body temperature increases above this level is called fever. This is also called Praxia or controlled hyperthermia (the rise in body temperature). The temperature of the body to check the fever is measured with medical thermometer placement in mouth mostly and sometimes in underarms also.

Fever can be caused by many different factors like virus or bacterial effect. And it causes many disorders in body like shivering, feeling cold and extreme warmth. The fever is common term which is more classified into many other diseases. And all are mainly caused by high temperature and its symptoms. The most common are;
  1. Relapsing fever
  2. Rheumatic fever
  3. Scarlet fever
  4. Undulant fever
  5. Yellow fever
Humans have survived at very high temperatures like 43°C but it leaves many side effects or disorders in body. In normal working of the body, the temperature remains normal. As the heat that is produced in the body is equal to the heat lost or consumed in the body, the temperature does not rise. When there is any change in this, the temperature of the body rises. This system of temperature regulation can be upset by bacterial or viral infections like from tonsilitis or influenza.

Fever is basically a protective mechanism but it leaves many side effects in body like weakness and burning of fats from excessive sweating. The level of salt and minerals in body are also dropped as after effects of it.

Few years ago, doctors realized that a patient who is suffering from syphilis (a sexually transmitted disease) is recovered from it, if he is attacked by malaria (a high fever condition). So in 1917 the Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist Julius Wagner von Jauregg started to use this method of artificial fever to treat syphilis till the invention of penicillin.

Patients suffering from fever are initially treated by lowering the body temperature by the use of aspirin or excessive use of liquids to accommodate the lost water and liquids from the body. The ice packs and cold bath is also used to treat it.

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What is Alcohol Rehab

To recover after an alcohol addiction is known as alcohol rehabilitation. It is a process whereby an addict is no more an addict and is trying to permanently quit this fatal habit. Going back to one’s normal life that was drug free pure and clean of such filths by regaining the previous state of healthy alcohol free life is rehabilitation.

Obviously the entire shift is complicated and not all plain sailing. There are many hardships faced by the person trying to rehabilitate after saying good bye to alcoholism. Such people not only undergo physical and physiological changes but also there are psychological ups and downs.

It’s about making one’s mind and a firm resolution in heart to leave the addiction for good. A strong will is quite important to begin with the rehab process. Once you are purified of the addiction you must be willing to maintain it and not to go back at the same point or it will ruin the efforts made so far. In that situation, the whole rehab process will have to be commenced from scratch that can be much more difficult than the first attempt. By that time the addiction will have penetrated deeply in the mind, so nipping this evil will be really challenging for the doctor and the patient both.

Alcohol Rehabilitation Centers
These are centers that provide therapies and counseling to those addicts who wish to stay away from alcoholism and drug abuse. They are treated with specific methods they are in need of. Behavior modification and family counseling is also a part of the treatment. The sooner the rehab begins the better it is for the addict, his family and friends. Besides, in earlier stages the problem is not severe and is relatively easier for the therapist and psychiatrists to treat it.

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Bacterial Meningitis Treatment

It is a bacterial infection of the sac that surrounds brain and spinal cord. Headache,neck stiffness and sensitivity to light are its typical symptoms.

Its extremely important to know about main causes of bacterial meningitis in order to get it treated properly. This infection can occur due to:
  • Hemophilic influenza type b (Hib)
  • Streptococcus pneumonia
  • Neisseria meningitides ( the name of a bacterium)
  • Other bacteria such as group B streptococci, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli.
Patients having meningitis must be treated immediately since this disease quickly spreads and causes neurological damages that are severe as well as irreversible. Studies show that proper cure of this serious illness can reduce the chances of death by almost 15 percent. Its treated through:

Strong doses of intravenous antibiotics are given to the patient. These also minimize the chances of other infections. Powerful antibiotics such as vancomycin (Vancocin) and ceftriaxone (Rocephin) are included in the therapy.

Prednisone can be used to reliever swelling and brain pressure. It also prevents hearing loss that is quite common in those with Hemophilus influenza meningitis.

Sedatives and pain killers
Sometimes, the physician may prescribe sedatives and pain medicines to make patient comfortable.

Other options
The disease is also cured by:
  • Anti nausea medications but only if its required
  • Intravenous fluids according to the need
  • Surgical treatment that includes drainage of sinuses if it is important to do.
  • Antconvulsant medications that are dilanti and Phenobarbital to prevent seizures. These are used in severe cases.
  • Acetaminophen(Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin).These fever-reducing medications are  also given. Aspirin should not be given to children.
  • Oxygen in case there is shortness of breath
These are the widely used treatment options. On individual basis, the patient must take plenty of fluids. Get sufficient rest and stay in a dark, quiet room all the time.

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What Is Palindromic Rheumatism

Palindromic Rheumatism is also known as PR in medical abbreviated form. This disease is basically a condition that is developed after sudden rapid attacks of arthritis. The duration of the attacks varies from patient to patient. And their interval is also different in each case.

This causes sudden and severe pain in joints. It also causes swelling, redness and may possibility disability of one or more joints. But this does not damage the joints. The name of this disease is derived from “Palindrome”. Palindrome is a word which is spelled same forward and backward. It is names to express the feeling that the disease begins and ends in same way. And in Greek it mean “Come and Go”.

Palindromic Rheumatism is a serious disease and it affects person of any age. Below I am expressing these condition in form of pictures.

Below is the picture which is affected from Palindromic Rheumatism. This is left ankle. You can see redness on the feet and little bit on fingers.

Below is the picture of left arm that is affected from Palindromic Rheumatism. You can see the swelling and redness on the arm.

This disease have no specific diagnosis and treatment because its many symptoms are same and arthritis and after affects of few other diseases. The nature of such condition is seen in many other diseases also so that is why there is not specific method to diagnose it. This disease affect both man and women. But mostly it affects to the people of age between 20 and 50.

Palindromic Rheumatism has no specific known cause. And this feels very strange too. And some doctors say that it is an abortive form of #rheumatoid arthritis as acti-CCP and antikeratin antibodies are present in such patients.

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Friday, January 25, 2013

Beriberi Treatments

A nervous disease, Beriberi is caused by a diet deficient in thiamin (vitamin B1). Literally, Beriberi means “I can’t, I can’t “in Singhalese that surely reflects the sever crippling effect it exerts on the patients.

Thiamine is involved in the process of energy molecules like glucose breakdown. It is also present on neuron membranes. Beriberi exhibits these signs:
  • Severe lethargy
  • Fatigue, tiredness
  • Cardiovascular complications such as, an irregular heart rate
  • Nervous system malfunctioning with impaired sensory perception
  • Gastrointestinal disturbances
  • Muscular problems
  • Weight loss
  • Pain in limbs
  • Edema (swelling of body tissues)
  • Elevated level of pyruvic acid and lactic acid in blood
In advanced cases, the disease behaved cruel, it causes heart failure and consequently leads to death.

How to treat?
This is a crucial question that has been well answered practically by various experts in the field of medicine.

Thiamine supplements
Since beriberi is caused by lack of vitamin B1, its best prevented or treated with providing the right amount of thiamine to the patient. This is done through supplements of the vitamin. These supplements are given orally or by injection. Besides this, other vitamins may also be recommended to the patient.

How to assess the effectiveness of the vitamin given to the affected person? The simple method is subsequent blood tests that determine whether vitamin supplements are working or not.

Thiamine hydrochloride
It is given in the form of a tablet or directly injected into the blood. Thiamine hydrochloride brings a rapid recovery within hours. Health gets improved within the same day when the treatment begins.

Thiamin-rich diet
During an emergency situation, where the availability of supplements is not possible such as remote village areas that lack expert physicians, clinic, hospitals and pharmacies; diet is taken help from. Foods that have high content of thiamine such as whole grain cereals, fresh meat, legumes, fruit, green vegetables and milk are given to the patient every day but it is slower process.

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Autism Treatment

Autism is defined as a condition which causes serious developmental disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that occur in early childhood generally before the age three. All autism disorders act on a child's ability to interact and communicate  with others.

The number of children suffering from autism appears to be increasing. It is not obvious whether this is due to better diagnosed and reporting of autism, a real increase in the number of cases, or both.  While there is no proper treatment for autism, early treatment can be beneficent and make a big difference in the lives of many children suffering from the disorder. Kids having autism usually have problems in three crucial areas of development which are social interaction, language and behavior.

But because of the reason autism symptoms alter greatly, two children with the same disorder may behave quite differently and have exceptionally different skills. In most cases severe autism is considered a complete inability to communicate or interact with others.

Few children show symptoms of autism in infancy. Other children may grow up normally for the first few months or years of life, but then suddenly become aloof, become aggressive or reduced language skills which they have already obtained. Even though each child having autism is likely to have a particular pattern of behavior, following are some usual autism symptoms:

  • Performs repetitive movements like hand-flapping.
  • Develops particular routines or rituals.
  • Becomes bother even due to the slightest change in routine.
  • Moves persistently.
  • Maybe fascinated by parts of an object like the spinning wheels of a toy car.
  • Maybe uncommonly sensitive to light, sound and touch and yet oblivious to pain.
  • Starts speaking after the age of two, and has other developmental delays by 30 months
  • Loses previously obtained ability to say words.
  • Doesn't make eye contact when talking with others
  • Speaks with an abnormal tone and may use a singsong voice or robot-like speech
  • Can't start a conversation or keep one going
Social skills
  • Fails to respond to their name
  • Has poor eye contact
  • Found not to hear you at times
  • Found unaware of others' feelings
  • Seems to prefer playing alone
  • Autism does not have any single, known cause. Following are the main causes
Environmental factors
Several health problems are due to both genetic and environmental factors autism is also caused by both. Analyzers are currently exploring whether viral infections and air pollutants are playing a role in triggering autism.

Genetic problems
Several no of genes appear to be involved in autism. Some may make a child more exposed to the disorder; others act on the brain development or the way brain cells communicate.

Treatment options
There is no treatment for autism. The series of home-based and school-based treatments for autism can be overwhelming. Treatment options are include the following:

Behavior and communication therapies
Several programs have been established to address the series of social, behavioral and language  difficulties correlated with autism. Some programs aim on decreasing problem behaviors and teaching new skills. Other programs aim on teaching children how to behave in social situations or how to communicate with other people. Even though children do not always outgrow autism, they may determine to function well with the disorder.

Educational therapies
Children suffering from autism mostly respond well to highly structured education programs. Successful programs usually include a team of specialists and a variety of activities to enhance social skills, behavior and communication. Preschool children who get intensive, individualized behavioral activities show well progress.

There is no medicine which can improve the key signs of autism, but certain medications can help in controlling symptoms. Antidepressants may be advised for anxiety, for instance, and anti-psychotic drugs are sometimes used to cure severe behavioral problems.

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Vaccine Possibility for Meningitis B

Attempts 4CMenB vaccine, the first vaccine against meningitis B has shown promising results that could help fight disease and save the lives of hundreds of children each year. The results presented at the European Society for Infectious Diseases in Children in The Hague, has shown that the vaccine was effective in preventing about 80 percent in 1000 strains of meningitis B in different parts of Europe.

The results are exciting and it's a very positive step in the fight to eradicate meningitis B, which is the biggest killer of all types of meningitis in Britain, said Steve Dayman, meningitis in the UK charity. This vaccine is the first of its kind and has the potential to save thousands of lives. Meningitis B is very deadly and can kill babies and toddlers aged less than four hours. More than 10 percent of victims are killed by the disease, with about 15 percent of survivors are disabled and suffer from long-term effects.

There are several types of meningitis caused by different microorganisms. B meningococcus is the most common form of bacterial meningitis, and the most difficult challenge for scientists because there are so many strains to target.

Although vaccination programs have been successfully introduced to the fight against pneumococcal meningitis C and Hib strains and B there is no vaccine currently exists. The results of 1800 children found that the vaccine worked well, alone or in conjunction with vaccines for other strains of the disease.

Another 1500 study found that babies that provide protection when administered as a booster, while others showed an immune response in adolescents. 4CMenB was developed by Novartis, has applied for a marketing license for the European Medicines Agency to cover the United Kingdom. The vaccine was developed using a reverse vaccinology is called, to decode the genome sequence of meningococcal B and selecting proteins most likely to be broadly effective vaccine candidates.

It could give the children from the age of two months in three booster doses a year. Sometimes invaded and inflames the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. In mild cases respond quickly to antibiotic treatment, but the most serious of developing meningococcal blood poisoning when the blood is contaminated. Sue Weston, Director General of charity, Meningitis Trust, said: A vaccine would greatly reduce the level of suffering that we see every day.

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New Dietary Duidelines for Indians

Food experts will give you a lot about load of calories your body gulab jamun, or indulge in fried foods such as eating healthy and unhealthy lifestyle has resulted in their new life. As more and more people greet the sensation of eating that is slightly on your abdomen, dieticians are most sought after experts.

The new Dietary Guidelines for Indians were released and a budding group of nutritionists spread the word about nutrition. It's exciting to be part of a profession that can make a healthy choice, for example Swetha, Anusha Sharma and Pallavi Shah Karishma MSc students of the Institute.

Nutrition experts who talk about dietary supplements and weight loss centers that offer thin Deepika Padukone were all on the agenda. People are falling into the trap, but what about the side effects? Swetha recalls the experience of going to a yoga center, where he gave his brother a package of 15 days with the promise that he would lose three kilos in a week.  I was surprised when I heard. I asked, is it healthy? How can you lose weight so quickly?

But there are people who fall into these packages. Young people say that the concept of health as an investment is still a long way to go in India. Obesity, especially among children is alarming, and parents realize that this is the result of a compromise in lifestyle. Why send public health messages transmitted cartoon?

Because of their knowledge of nutrition for young people are aware enough to understand the false claims made by advertising companies. A company chip zero cholesterol claims as its USP. Food, which has a plant, will not be cholesterol naturally. Fat and cholesterol are two different things, and business people into error.

Nutrition experts have also turned into entrepreneurs by protein supplements. Awareness is very important and you must know the dos and don'ts before you take a supplement. Finally, how young nutritionists resist the temptation?

When you sign up for a nutrition course, every time you watch something on your plate, a thought crosses the mind of its nutritional value and calories. After a few months, you stop thinking and eating well becomes a part of your lifestyle. Make a sincere effort to build a healthy lifestyle goes a long way to stay fit. We must invest in health regret is that the later the mantra.

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Aspirin for Fever, Heart Attack and Pain

Aspirin is also known as acetylsalicylic acid which is common drug or medicine that is used to treat fever, pain, and inflammation. This drug is a synthetic chemical compound that helps to reduce the body temperature by interfering with the production of hormone like substances called propagandist.

The research shows that the use of aspirin has many other benefits for other diseases like heart disease, heat stroke, various types of cancer and other diseases. Research and study on aspirin also proves that the use of aspirin reduces the chances of heart attach also. And when a person is attacked with heart attack, normally doctors give an aspirin to reduce the effect of another heart attack.

Aspirin also helps to reduce the building of blood clots. As it has a function like antiplatelet. Aspirin is given as low dose to patients to help reduce heart attack, heat strokes and blood clot production in the body ( Only those are treated which have high blood clot formation problems).

Aspirin is normally used to get ease from pain. It helps to reduce the realization of pain in normal circumstances. And it is used in muscle pain, acute skin irritation and sometimes in pain after surgery. But study proves that alone aspirin is not good to ease pain and if it is taken with caffeine then it is more useful.

Aspiring is most commonly used in the word to get relief from headache. Headache is very common in normal life. And mostly it is used to get rid of it which people use even without any doctor prescription. And the study proves that it gives relief in more than 60% cases in headache and tension.

There are many side effects of aspirin like it cause small amount of bleeding in digestive tract which could cause iron deficiency in the body of the patient. Doctors have also come to know that aspirin use is bad in pregnancy situations. It can have adverse effects like miscarriage or bad effects of the developing baby. Extra dose of aspirin can cause poisoning, so extra dose should be avoided. Especially the kids should not be given it as dose not even in the form of tablet or dissolving in the water. It is dangerous in both sides.

Other Related Health Topics


This is the most common disease. Nearly everybody feels it from time to time. Depression is a psychological disease and is also known as mental illness. In this mental state the person (depressed person) loses interest in most of the life activities. There are many things that cause such effects. And it can be because of any of these factors like sadness, anxiety, emptiness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, irritability, or restlessness.

Illnesses due to depression

Psychiatric syndromes
Many psychiatric syndromes specify the depressed mood as the main leading factor. Mood disorders or behavioral change is the main reason. Among many such factors the major depressed disorder or MDD which is also known as clinical depression or major depression in which person stay depresses for at least two weeks and disconnected from all daily activities and routines. Another depression state is Dysthymia which is less in condition to MDD. This is also known as moderate chronic depressed mood or borderline personality disorder. Mostly people who suffer from Major Depresses Disorder have feelings like hopelessness, worthlessness and desire to commit suicide.

Non-psychiatric illnesses
Depression can also be caused by non-psychiatric ways like from disease. Mostly in diseases like fever, patient has depressed mood and mostly disconnected from all daily routines.  Virus infections or bacterial effects like malaria can also cause mood disorders. This is also called non-psychiatric illness.


Stressful Life events
Doctors of positive psychology have been focusing on mood disorders from past life events since years. When a person remembers life events from his/her past, he becomes sad and this continues as a self-fulfilling cycle. These bad memories not only distract the person but also affect the performance to solve problems and matters of life. So these past life events always haunts persons till death and the mood disorders continue till we stop thinking about them There is not cure for such matters till now in medical science or psychology.

Biological factors
Genetics and depression are linked to each other. Study on depression has proved that in twin kids, if one faces depression the other is also occupied from such factors. It means that it is linked to genetics of the person. Depression and bipolar disorders are found quiet common in twin and the level of similarity is much higher than other factors. In case, if father or mother faces depression the children will also face such depression or mood disorders.

Psychological factors
There are many psychological factors of depression also. In positive psychology that mainly focuses on depression and brain disorders caused by psychological factors, studies the way how people think and behave in response to certain mood conditions. In a 1917, the famous Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud explained melancholia which is a major depression caused as a response to loss. The loss can be real as the death of a spouse, mental loss, or materialistic loss. This anger is called unconscious anger. It weakens the ego of the victim which leads towards self-denial and self-destructive behavior. This is belief of Dr. Sigmund Freud.

A study from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2010 proves that 9% US citizens meet the conditions of normal depression. And 3.4% meet the criteria of major depression. And this is the most common disease in United States and other countries as well. About more than 15% citizens face the problem of depression in their lives. This illness does not care about ethnicity, race and citizenship. This is faced by every person on the face of earth.
Over the last few decades, the problem of depression is increasing day by day. And social scientists have proposed many solutions to drop its ration like change in family structure, less bonding to religion, urbanization and reduced cultural impacts on life.

Depression is associated with brain and minor change activities in brain. It has been proved from studies that brain chemicals known as Neurotransmitters are very vital in roles to control mood and emotions. Neurotransmitters which are involved in depression include norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. In previous years like in 1960s, the researchers prove that when depression arises when activity of Neurotransmitters is lower than normal in brain.

When the activity level of Neurotransmitters is increased by the use of drug like antidepressant, the mood becomes normal. This also explains the brain neurotransmitters relation to mood and depression. Although it was found true but the later research have discarded it and asked for more complex explanation of this relation.

Hydrocortisone which is also known as ‘ortisol’ is also important in mood and disorder management. It is a hormone which is released by adrenal gland in result of stress on mind. The activity of these hormones is more than normal under the condition of depression and stress.

Many other medical conditions can also cause depression. Such as deficiency in the level of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 can cause depression. And use of certain medicines and injections can also cause depression.

Symptoms and Assessment
Depression can appear in any phase of life but mostly it comes in 20s or 30s. And gradually it increases overtime, may be in years or months. But sometimes it overcomes the person even in moments. We also call it ‘nervous breakdown’. In this situation the person becomes so confused and frightened and shattered mostly.

Symptoms of depression are not same for all ages. Like in children, this may be because of headache, fever or stomachache. The disturbance in family and even change in schedule of school can also be the reason. The change in diet can also cause depression for the children. In elder age, the patients take the depression physically more than emotional shock and sometimes it also lead the doctor to mid-diagnose the disease.

The change of culture also affects the behavior and level of symptoms of depression. Like a person western culture may be depressed but would not feel so and will only complain about such. And if a person in Asian culture feels depressed, then it may feel week, fatigue and failure of life.

Appetite and Sleep Changes
The depression affects sleep and appetite of the person. Depresses person may sleep for more time and even can be sleep for few hours leaving himself restless. The most commonly depresses persons sleep less and usually wakes up early which are the hardest time for them.

Appetite is also affected by depression. Usually it causes the person to lose interest in food which make him week and angry and yet not feeling hunger. But sometimes the appetite increases in this state but this is very rare chance.

Changes in Energy Level
Depression causes the drop in the energy level of the patient. Usually the energy levels drop because of the factors discusses above and it leaves the patient week, poor level of concentration and bad pace in movement. These people may feel a burden on their head and would not be able to carry on normal life operations. Mostly people use energy drinks to give a boost to the dropped energy level.

Poor Self-Esteem
The level of self-esteem is affected very severely in the state of depression. A person started to feel as worthless, useless only because of a small or minor failure in life. And in such condition even can go for the loss of life to get rid of such worthless condition. And morally the depressed person drops so much lower that the mirrors even reflect his image and bad and ugly. In this state even a decent person may feel bad, deficient, cruel, stupid, or guilty of having deceived others. While people with major depression experience such extreme emotional pain or trauma that they attempt suicide and mostly succeed. At least 15 percent of seriously depressed people commit suicide.

Psychotic Symptoms
Delusion is a state in which person makes false beliefs. And a hallucination which is also known as false sensory perceptions is also seen among such patients. Depressed persons are mostly seen in these two states in major depression levels of their life. Mostly these persons are hospitalized for longer a period which leaves them moody and unhappy all the time. Usually these patients are seen committing suicide instead of living.

Depression Treatments
This is a psychological disease. It cannot be taken away by will or medicine. This is a real bad thing in such a modern age. A depression course is done to give relief from pain of depression to the patient for long time. It possible helps to lower its impact on the patient. May drugs like antidepressant are used effectively to treat depression. Psychotherapy is also helpful to treat it. And sometimes both are used in combination.

Antidepressant Drugs
Antidepressant drugs are used to treat more than 70% cases of depression. These drugs work by changing the chemical processes of brain linked to mood and emotions like serotonin, norepinephrine, and other neurotransmitters. These drugs are used on approximation by doctors as it is not found which would be best for the patient. These antidepressant drugs are not addictive but they may leave many side effects.

Most commonly used antidepressant drugs are of three types:
  • Tricyclics (three ring chemical structure including amitriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, doxepin and nortriptyline). It has many side effects like dizziness, dry mouth and blurred vision.
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors): These include include isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), and tranylcypromine (Parnate). Its side effect is the dangerous rise in blood pressure.
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): These include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and paroxetine (Paxil). Its side effects are headache, drowsiness, insomnia and sexual dysfunction.
Psychotherapy is far more effective than antidepressant drugs. The drugs have so many side effects while Psychotherapy has not. But the process of this depression treatment is long for effective treatment and positive results. A Psychotherapist takes care of the patient and treats him/her with care to ease or drop the level of depression.

There are several types of psychotherapy;
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy: This comes from negative thoughts like worthlessness factor is involved in this. Person thinks him or herself as useless and considers the future as dark picture. A person is treated in this therapy to eliminate such type of negative thinking and converting them to positive and hopeful aspects.
  • Interpersonal Therapy: In this therapy treatment the person is treated to realize and solve the problems among relationships which are causing the depression.
  • Psychodynamic therapy: The psychotherapist focuses in this treatment on the past life of the patient and resolution of the childhood conflicts. Psychoanalysis is one such example.

Other Treatments
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): This method is very controversial among many psychologists. Although it is proven that it is very effective in high levels of depression. It works where antidepressant drugs and psychotherapy fails to heal the patient. In this treatment a low-voltage is passed through brain for one or two seconds for six to ten times over several weeks. ECT gives much relief to the patient but it can have severe bad effects like memory loss and disorientation.

The study has also proved that aerobic exercises for long time can also improve such things. It helps to release the depression and give some relief to the patient. And some nutritionists say that some changes in the diet of the patient are also helpful to some extent.

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Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is very common type of fever which is caused by ‘typhoid bacillus Salmonella typhi’. This fever is heard all over the world.

The bacteria that cause Typhoid are ‘Typhoid bacillus Salmonella typhi’. The bacillus is transmitted from person to person by use of contaminated food or water by the feces of typhoid carriers or victims. The ratios of deaths from this fever are too high. The number is more than 6-lac globally only because of Typhoid fever.

The history of typhoid fever starts from 430-424BC when about all the nation of Athens was dies because of plague. And their leader Pericles was also killed among its nation. The research on this disease has long been confusing and useless because of mythical conversation and DNA study crisis.

Some historical proofs say that in English colony of Jamestown, Virginia, typhoid fever killed about more than 6000 persons between 1607 and 1624. And after that in the American Civil War, about more than 81,000 soldiers dies of typhoid and dysentery.

The worst condition was found in Chicago in 1891 when the death rate increased from 65/100000 a year to 174/100000 people a year. This was mainly from polluted water of the Chicago River. The research was continued over the years and then Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 to November 11, 1938) was found with typhoid carrier and is also known as Typhoid Mary. It has been said that she has infected more than 53 people by typhoid and among those 3 were died.

What are symptoms of typhoid fever?

This fever slowly increases as compared to other types of fever. The bacteria enter in small intestine and slowly travel to blood stream in one to two weeks. This starts high fever about 40 °C (104 °F) and sweating along with that. And sometimes a rose color spots appear on skin of the typhoid patient but it is not so common. The patient can also feel headache, cough, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Diagnosis of typhoid

The Diagnosis of typhoid is made by any blood sample or bone marrow. This can also be done with stool and with the Widal test. This is the demonstration of salmonella antibodies against antigens O-somatic and H-flagellar. The Widal test is time consuming and sometimes it is too late to start antibiotic when the result is received.

How can we control and control typhoid fever?

This disease is only in humans. The animal and other life forms are not affected by these bacteria. The transmission is also carried out from human to human. Sanitary condition plays an important role in the prevention of typhoid. Below mention points are more important to prevent typhoid fever;
  • Keep the area clean.
  • Use clean and pure drinking water.
  • Avoid the urine and human feces to come in contact with your food or water.
  • Wash your hands before eating something.
  • Improvement of sewerage facilities.

What are treatment options of typhoid fever?

The treatment options of this disease are many. Some are in the form of antibiotics and others in form of vaccine. The approved antibiotics to be used for treatment of typhoid are from the fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin groups, such as ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Below is the brief for treatment related to stages of typhoid fever?
  • When the resistance to disease is uncommon then the treatment of first choice is a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin.
  • When the resistance is common then the third-generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone or cefotaxime is the first choice.
  • 3rd is Cefixime which is a suitable oral alternative for both the above mentioned antibiotics.
If it is treated properly, then the death rates drop more than untreated cases. Death rates in untreated cases are 10% to 30% which is very high.

What are Typhoid Vaccines?
The recommended vaccines from World Health Organization (WHO) are;
  • Live and oral Ty21a vaccine which is sold as Vivotif Berna.
  • Injectable Typhoid polysaccharide vaccine which is sold as Typhim Vi by Sanofi Pasteur and Typherix by GlaxoSmithKline.
Both the above mentioned vaccines are 50% to 80% effective to prevent typhoid and are good for those who travel to area of typhoid affection. And for oral or live vaccines, a booster is required every five years while after every 2nd year a booster is recommended for inject-able vaccine.

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Names of Diseases

Health and fitness is very important for everyone of us. And when we get a disease, we get treatment for that disease. Below is a list of the diseases that are most familiar to world researchers and health consultants. The list is very brief and does not cover all aspects of the diseases and conditions. But our technical experts are continuously trying to make this very accurate and perfect.

This is a bulleted list below. The primary series express the alphabetical order to make it easy for the readers. And the secondary list represents the diseases and conditions in a numerical order. This is compiled by Dr. Sermed Ali and he always welcomes new comments and queries by other writers and scientists or doctors. Here is the final and compiled alphabetical list of diseases for your information and medical knowledge.

Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘A’
  • Achondroplasia
  • Adenoma
  • AIDS
  • Albinism
  • Alcoholic hepatitis
  • Alopecia
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Amblyopia
  • Amoebiasis or Amebiasis
  • Anemia
  • Aneurdu
  • Anosmia
  • Anotia
  • Anthrax
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Appendicitis
  • Apraxia
  • Argyria
  • Arthritis
  • Aseptic meningitis
  • Asthenia
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Athetosis
  • Atrophy
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘B’
  • Bacterial meningitis
  • Beriberi
  • Botulism
  • Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Bronchitis
  • Brucellosis
  • Bubonic plague
  • Blue Waffle
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘C’
  • Calculi
  • Campylobacter infection
  • Cancer
  • Candidiasis
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Chagas disease
  • Chalazion
  • Chancroid
  • Chavia
  • Cherubism
  • Chickenpox
  • Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Cholera
  • Chordoma
  • Chorea
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Cirrhosis
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Conduct Disorder (A condition or state of a person)
  • Colitis
  • Common cold
  • Condyloma
  • Congestive heart disease
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Cowpox
  • Cretinism
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘D’
  • Delirium Tremens
  • Dengue
  • Depression
  • Dependent Personality Disorder
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diphtheria
  • Dwarfism
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘E’
  • Encephalitis
  • Ebola
  • Emphysema
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘F & G’
  • Foodborne illness
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Genital Herpes
  • Goitre
  • Gonorrhea
  • Gangrene
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘H’
  • Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Hepatitis D
  • Hepatitis E
  • Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • Huntington's disease
  • Hypermetropia
  • Hypothermia
  • Hypothyroid
  • Hemorrhoids
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘I, J, K & L’
  • Impaired Physicians
  • Impulse Control Disorders
  • Influenza
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder
  • Iritis
  • Iron-deficiency anemia
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Jaundice
  • Keloids
  • Kleptomania
  • Kuru
  • Kwashiorkor
  • Lead poisoning
  • Legionellosis
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Leprosy
  • Leptospirosis
  • Listeriosis
  • Leukemia
  • Loiasis
  • Lupus erythematosus
  • Lyme disease
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Lymphoma
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘M, N & O’
  • Malaria
  • Marburg fever
  • Measles
  • Melioidosis
  • Ménière's disease
  • Meningitis
  • Migraine
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Mumps
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Myelitis
  • Myoclonus
  • Myopia
  • Myxedema
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • Neoplasm
  • Non-gonococcal urethritis
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Osteoporosis
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘P, Q & R’
  • Palindromic rheumatism
  • Paratyphoid fever
  • Pathological Gambling
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Personality Disorders
  • Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Panic Disorder
  • Pancreatitis
  • Parentification
  • Peritonitis
  • Periodontal disease
  • Pertussis (Whooping cough)
  • Phenylketonuria
  • Physician Brief Intervention
  • Plague
  • Polio or Poliomyelitis
  • Porphyria
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • Progeria
  • Prostatitis
  • Psittacosis
  • Psoriasis
  • Psychiatric Comorbidities
  • Pubic lice
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Pyromania
  • Q fever
  • Rabies
  • Repetitive strain injury (RSI)
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Rheumatic heart
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Rickets
  • Rift Valley fever
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  • Rubella
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘S’
  • Salmonellosis
  • Scabies
  • Scarlet fever
  • Sciatica
  • Scleroderma
  • Scrapie
  • Scurvy
  • Sepsis
  • SARS
  • Shigellosis
  • Shingles
  • Sickle-cell anemia
  • Siderosis
  • Silicosis
  • Smallpox
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  • Strabismus
  • Strep throat
  • Streptococcal infection
  • Synovitis
  • Syphilis
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder
  • Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • Swine influenza
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘T’
  • Taeniasis
  • Tay-Sachs disease
  • Teratoma
  • Tetanus
  • Thalassaemia
  • Thrush
  • Thymoma
  • Tinnitus
  • Toxic shock syndrome
  • Trichinosis
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Trisomy
  • Trichotillomania
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tularemia
  • Tungiasis
  • Typhoid
  • Typhus
Diseases and Conditions Starting with Letter ‘U, V, W, X, Y & Z’

What is Achondroplasia

Human body grows normally if there are no disorders in it. It is not a casual disease and occurs very rare. One such disorder is Dwarfism. And Achondroplasia in one among many forms of Dwarfism. In this state or disease, the bones of the patient does not grow in normal way.

In this disease, the bones of the patient remains too short or grow too slowly. Achondroplasia mostly is caused by a dominant factor of allele and mostly affects the femur and humorous. This factor means that it is transferred from parents to kids or you can say it is transferred through genes.

Achondroplasia has more than 75% chances in a new born child if the gene is in father as well as mother too and that can last for maximum for three months in this state for a child to survive. Mean, the child would be dead. If any one of them have gene then the chances of it are 50%.

Achondroplasia can also occur if parents does not have gene of this disease. This happens with a light change in DNA receptor factor 3. This so affects the making of cartilage. And it is too unpleasant that no such treatments are found for this disease and as the reasons and DNA factor is known now. In the future we may seem positive treatment for this awesome disease. The persons or kids with disease remain short of height because their bones are very short.

What are Symptoms of achondroplastic?
The typical appearance of achondroplastic dwarfism is small and visible since birth and other few symptoms are:
  • The appearance of hand is not normal
  • The legs are bowed
  • The head to body size difference is large if we see them in natural proportion.
  • The forehead of the person is usually large and prominent.
  • The arms of patient are short.
  • The legs of the patient are short.
  • The height of the person is short as compared to the normal fellow person of same sex and age.
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Spine curvatures called kyphosis and lordosis

References and Footnotes;
  1. Horton WA, Hecht JT. Disorders involving transmembrane receptors. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 694.
  2. Achondroplasia. [Online] November 2nd, 2009. [Cited: July 17th, 2011.]
  3. Neurotransmitter. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [Online] July 6th, 2011. [Cited: July 17th, 2011.]

What Is AIDS

AIDS is abbreviation of Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This kills the ability of the person’s immune system to resist or fight back the disease or infection to the body. This is caused by a HIV.

HIV is abbreviation of human immunodeficiency virus. In this disease the patient is open to attack from opportunistic infections or infections which are caused by microbes. In such condition the infections take advantage of the weakened immune system of the patient.

There are many ways for the transmission of AIDS infection. Below are some patterns which are most common for the spread of AIDS or HIV.

Intercourse with an HIV/AIDS infected person.
The most common way of transmission of AIDS is through intercourse. It can be transmitted through all forms of sex like oral, anal, vaginal or genital sex. This virus (HIV) is present in the infected person’s semen or vaginal fluid. During the sexual intercourse the virus is transmitted though the openings of the mucous membrane of the uninfected person.

The mucous membrane is a protective layer that lies in vagina, mouth and rectum. This virus can also be transmitted from female or male to male through opening in the penis of the uninfected person. And the stats of its transmission prove that in Canada and United Stated about more than 90% transmission is through sex. And this is more common between men to men. It has been studies that heterosexual activities are more prone to AIDS.

Contact with AIDS infected person.
AIDS is also spread with direct contact to the person’s infected blood. It happens most commonly when any drug addict uses the syringe or blood infected needle, the virus is transferred easily and infects the person. This sharing of needle between drug addicts is most common cause in Eastern Europe, India, Pakistan.

Mother to child transmission
If mother is infected with HIV, it is most common that the disease is transferred to the child before birth. And if is not transferred during that stage, then it can also be transferred through breast feeding. About more than 90% cases of AIDS in children is in mother-to-child transmission. And this is more common in Africa.
There is not a single cure of this disease so far.

There are certain drugs that only increases the lifespan of the person who is infected with HIV. And these treatments are very much expensive. So the AIDS which is caused by HIV is very serious disease.

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What Is Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is a term that is specially used for a type of fever which is caused by a virus. This is a casual disease which is most common in humans. But the study and research has proved that is is also found in monkeys and other animals but in very few cases. It has certain remedies like other available fever treatments.

This virus which causes Yellow Fever is transmitted by mosquitoes. It is also called acute viral haemorrhagic disease. And yellow in its names refers to Jaundice that is found in some patients.

Yellow Fever can sometimes cause a very high fever and jaundice. And mostly there are chances that above 50% of the patients with high fever can die if not treated properly. There are certain symptoms of it like the mentioned below;
  • It can cause Arrhythmias of heart dysfunction
  • It can cause bleeding
  • Can lead to Coma
  • Can cause decreased urination
  • Delirium
  • High Fever
  • Headache
  • Jaundice
  • Muscle aches (myalgia)
  • Can cause Red eyes, face, tongue
  • Seizures
  • Vomiting with blood Symptoms
The outcome or complications of this disease can be in many forms like the mentioned below;
  • Can cause Coma
  • Death can happen
  • Can lead to Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
  • Can cause Kidney failure
  • Can cause Liver failure
  • Parotitis
  • It can be reason for Secondary bacterial infections
This disease is mostly found in Latin America and Africa. About 200,000 cases are documented each year and among those 30,000 deaths are recorded about patients of Yellow Fever. The cases of this fever are increasing and recorded the continuous increase in it over last few decades due to climate and sanitary conditions.

There are temporary of sympathetic treatments available but no proper treatment of yellow fever is still found. Whatever treatments are found only satisfy for short time. The most effective way to deal with yellow fever is vaccination. It is safe while at the same time cost effective too. This yellow fever vaccination prevents you for about 30-35 years.

Vaccination is the most important preventive measure against yellow fever. The vaccine is safe, affordable and highly effective, and appears to provide protection for 30–35 years or more. The vaccine provides effective immunity within one week for 95% of persons vaccinated.

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What Is Whooping cough or Pertussis

Pertussis is a bacterial disease and whooping cough the common name used for it. The word whooping is used because in the end, the sound produced from cough is like whooped high pitched sound. This disease is spread because of Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis bacteria.

When the patient is affected from it, the coughing becomes so sever that it becomes even hard to breathe. And this cough is bitter, severe and uncontrollable. This begins with running nose, harsh cough and somehow slight fever.

This condition stays for one to two weeks which then converts to whooping cough. And this can last to four to five weeks. This disease is also known as 100 days cough or cough of 100 days in many countries because it usually last for around these number of days. When the whooping cough spell starts, mostly it end with vomiting.

Pertussis or Whooping Cough is more common is children specially of age less than five. And it is very dangerous and serious disease for under one year kids. The other such symptoms of this disease are;
  • Runny nose is most common and starting symptom
  • Low Fever (102 °F or lower)
  • Diarrhea
  • Cough with whooping sound
  • Cough with Whoop and vomiting
It has been seen from the reports that about more than 7,800 deaths occur each year in United States because of whooping cough or pertussis. World Health Organization stats that around more than 48.5 million people are affected from it which causes nearly 295,000 deaths each year worldwide.

The average number of cases found before the invention of vaccines for this disease were 157/100,000 in the United States. And among those cases, only 93% were in children under the age of ten years. The vaccination was started in United States in 1940 and then the number was dropped to 1/100,000 that is satisfactory. And these rates are reportedly have increases since 1980.

Pertussis is spread when the uninfected person inhales the droplets that are sprayed in the air by an infected person. Once the bacteria gets inside the respiratory tract, it produces toxin which is a poisonous chemical that interferes with the respiratory tract’s ability to eliminate microbial infections.
There are certain treatments of this disease and few are mentioned below;
  1. Doctors treat patients mostly with antibiotics.
  2. Sedatives are sometimes used to control cough.
  3. Loss of fluids is controlled by providing liquids through any way.
  4. The Pertussis vaccine is also given along with diphtheria and tetanus vaccines in a shot called DTaP.

What is Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hipple-Lindau is called VHL in its abbreviated form. This is very rare disease and it is because of genetics disorders in many parts of the body. This genetic disorder results in abnormal growth of tumors in different parts of the body.

This is a serious disease and if not treated properly then it may lead to complete blindness or brain damage. So a very careful handling of such patient is required. The name of the disease is after the famous German ophthalmologist Eugen Von Hipple who first noticed angiomas in eye of a patient in 1904. And later Arvid Lindua further stated the angiomas of the cerebellum and spine in year 1927. There are few types of tumors that can be developed like the mentioned below;

Development of tumors:

  • The tumors that are produced in nervous system are called central nervous system (CNS) is benign and is made of nest of blood vessels which are called hemangioblastomas. Hemangioblastomas may possibly develop in the brain or retina of the eye. As this is related to nervous system, so the chances are in all parts related to nervous system like brain, eye etc.
  • The tumors can also be developed in adrenal glands.
  • The tumors can also be developed in kidney.
  • The tumor may possibly develop in the pancreas.

Symptoms of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)

There are certain symptoms of this disease like the mentioned below;
  • Patient can feel headache
  • Patient can feel dizziness
  • Patient with such tumors can have visibility problems
  • Patients with tumors can realize of weakness of the limbs
  • Such infections also increase the chance of cancer building as compared to normal persons

Treatment of Von Hippel-Lindau:

The location and size of the tumor varies in different patients. And there are treatments of this disease but nature of such treatment depends on the tumor of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL). Although the cysts or tumor are not so big that they directly affect the nervous system or brain but it can cause the blockage in flow of cerebrospinal fluid in nervous system in long run. So that is why it is essential to treat such at early stages. The most common treatment is the surgery to remove the cyst or tumor before it is dangerous for the nervous system or vision of the patient.

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What is Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis is a disease which is developed in small intestine. Salmonellosis is caused by the salmonella bacteria. This disease is also known by the name ‘Salmonella Enterocolitis’.

This disease is started from food poisoning basically. If an uninfected person inhales the food that is contaminated with salmonella bacteria, the infection starts from small intestine and grows further (Into main blood stream) leaving other symptoms and condition which will be stated below.

All types of food can be contaminated if the preparation of the food is not done in clear area or the sanitary conditions are not good. This disease is named after an American Sergeon Daniel E.Salmon (1850-1914) who found these bacteria in pigs.

Reasons of Spreading of Salmonellosis

The salmonellosis develops under certain condition like the stated below;
  • Frozen food can be reason for this disease. Like undercooked turkey or chicken, unrefrigerated turkey dressing, undercooked eggs.
  • It can spread from family members with salmonella infection
  • The gastroenteritis is already among your family can cause it
  • A person who has been in an institution can have it
  • Eating chicken recently can cause it
  • A pet iguana or other lizards, turtles, or snakes. As reptiles are mostly carried of salmonella bacteria.
  • A weakened immune system can cause this disease.


When a person is infected with this bacterial infection, below mentioned symptoms are most commonly noted in the patient.  These symptoms are found after 12 to 72 hours of infection and these lasts for 4-5 days if not treated properly. This is casual disease and most people recover without any treatment although it has certain treatments.
  • Abdominal Pain is aroused
  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • Chills
  • Muscle Pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal Cramping
This disease cause many infection each year. In United Stated, it has been reported that about 142,000 persons are found infected with this disease and among those 30 die. And mostly this is caused from chicken eggs.

The FDA has published certain guidelines to control salmonellosis that is caused from food. Like the food must be cooked at 68–72°C (145–160°F) and liquids must be boiled before using. Freezing possibiliy kills salmonella but it is not sufficient to reduce the impact of it.

The scientist are researching on the antibodies of it, and for the first time it was found in Malawi children in year 2008. The malawian researchers have found an antibody which protects children from this infection. A study of 352 children at Queen Elizabeth Hospital found that children up to two years old develop antibodies that aid in killing the bacteria. This could lead to a possible Salmonella vaccine.

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What Is Myxedema

Myxedema is disease cause by the non-productivity of hormone in thyroid gland. The name of the disease is derived from Greek like (Greek myxa, “slime”; oidema, “swelling”). #Myxedema is same which causes increased deposition of connective tissue components like glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronic acid, and mucopolysaccharides.

These type of symptoms are also seen in hypothyroid. This disease mostly occurs from childhood and it may affect more than one person of same family. As it can happen to anybody who has deficiency of thyroid hormone.

Symptoms and Diagnosis:

The symptoms of this disease (myxedema) are mentioned below. The symptoms may appear because of low metabolic rate which happens from lack of production of thyroid hormone. This hormone is necessary component to stimulate metabolism.
  • Fatigue
  • Lethargy
  • Sleepiness
  • Poor tolerance to cold
  • Mental sluggishness
  • Weight gain
  • General pain and aches in the body
  • Face seems puffy and waxy
  • Skin becomes dry and coarse
  • Hair of the body becomes coarse, dry and tend to fall early
  • Eyebrows may also fall in certain parts
The physicians mostly require physical examination of the patient to check the proper size of the gland. The size may vary from patient to patient. The result of the examination may reveal the symptoms mentioned below;
  • The nails would be brittle
  • Coarse facial features may appear
  • Pale or dry skin, which may be cool to the touch
  • Swelling of the arms and legs can happen
  • Thin and brittle hair of the person which can lead to early fall
  • A chest x-ray can show the size of the heart more than normal
These laboratory tests are done to determine the level and function of thyroid gland;
  • TSH Test
  • T4 Test
The laboratory test may bring these things into the knowledge of the physician.
  • The disease anemia appearance on a Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • The level of the cholesterol is increased
  • The enzymes of the liver are increased
  • The increase in prolactin
  • Decrease in the level of the sodium in the body of the patient

Treatment and Precautions of Myxedema:

This disease have treatments like other abnormal disease. It’s purpose is to correct the level of thyroid hormone in the patient. Below are certain medication and treatment details for such patients;
  • Levothyroxin is used mostly to bring the TSH level to normal range. This medicine is given at very low doze and specially if the patient have heart disease too. Then in that condition the doze is very small.
  • The therapy as lifelong is also used in most cases. But it is avoided if the patient have a condition called transient viral thyroiditis.
  • The medicine that is prescribe must be continued even after it is cured. And the level of hormone must be checked every 2-3 months.
  • The change in the brand of medicine should not be done without doctor advice.
  • High fiber diet is prohibited in these cases and nutritionist must be consulted along with the advice of the doctor.
  • Thyroid medicine is best when your stomach is empty.
  • Avoid taking the thyroid medicine with fiber diet or supplement like calcium, iron, multivitamins, antiacids.
Myxedema coma is the extreme condition that occurs in this disease. It occurs when the thyroid level of the body becomes extremely low. It is then treated with intravenous thyroid hormone replacement and steroid medications. Patients are also treated with supportive therapy in this case as oxygen, breathing assistance, fluid replacement and intensive care nursing. If you are treated properly and still feel the symptoms mentioned then again consult the doctor.
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Restlessness or shakiness
  • Sweating

Alcohol Rehab Types

There are several types of facilities offered for drug rehabilitation. The addicts have to choose one or more according to the demand of their disorder- severity and nature.
Widely these are categorized as;
  1. Inpatient Counseling
  2. Outpatient counseling
  3. Residential care
Inpatient Rehab Center
These centers make the addicts change their regular routine and learn how to quit alcoholism or any drug intake on long-term basis. During the care session you will not have any access to alcohol so within a few days you will be no more dependent upon the drug.

The treatment is usually takes four to seven weeks. Since it is longer in duration, it is more effective than the other treatments. The program does not end there but is then transformed into the next phase which is known as outpatient.

Outpatient Counseling
It includes meetings and sessions that are planned on a regular basis to facilitate the patient get rid of alcoholism. Most of the people undergoing this treatment find it effective but there are some who consider it impossible to achieve without continuously being monitored by the therapists, psychiatrists and counselors.

They are also heavily dependent upon medications prescribed by their doctors to help quit drug abuse. An important fact is the longer is the duration of the treatment and sessions the higher are the chances of success. Therefore, outpatient treatment is less result generating than in patient which takes several weeks as mentioned in the above heading.

Residential Rehab Program
As the name indicates, it requires the patients under treatment to stay inside the center where they are kept under constant supervision 24/7. For the addict whose severity level has crossed the limits and is not curable through the first two programs they are recommended to get admitted to such residential centers where they learn to adopt a healthy lifestyle. Their dietary habits, behavioral problems and addiction issues are all taken into consideration to get them overcome the difficulty.

Decide for yourself what treatment facilities you need to have, then proceed accordingly.

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What is pornography addiction

Pornography is a form of an art; it is created to fulfill the sexual desires of people living in this world. Pornography is an activity in which the explicit sexual subjects are shown in order to create sexual excitement and sexual satisfaction. Pornography comes in many forms, such as film, magazines, jokes, and story books, and the basic function is to arouse the lust.

People who are aware of pornography sometimes get deeply involved in it and they start getting addicted to it. Pornography addiction is a part of sexual addiction, but it is limited and specific to hostile and explicit images and movies. Pornography is use in every persons daily life but the over use of it becomes a pornography addiction and by getting addicted to it people start getting into negative consequences.

The main reason and the main cause because of which pornography occurs is that people get exposed to porn or naked images and they get to see naked pictures of human body and then their interest develops in watch more new and different type of images which keeps arousing their lust and their feelings.

Pornography addiction specially occurs to the children’s in young age when they experience naked pictures of their opposite or same gender, and for them it’s something new that they have never experience because of which the level of their interest increases.

Pornography addiction is not called a descent addiction, it is an addiction which is totally obscene, because it directly affects the feelings of an individual and when the feelings arise they involves a person into illegal acts.

Most of the people are helpless of this addiction because they are such kind of people who are not treated well by their society and they are not friends with many people in their society so their loneliness forces them to this addiction.

There are some people who are not good in sexual relations and not liked by their opposite gender or they have no relations and they stay unmarried so they fulfill their desires and satisfy themselves by watching pornography and these all reasons cause them addicted to pornography.

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